Effets de site, endommagement et érosion des pentes dans les zones épicentrales des chaînes de montagnes actives

Abstract : Landslides are a major natural hazard that cause significant damages and casualties to people. Earthquakes are one of their main triggers in active mountain belts. In epicentral area, the passage of seismic-waves that disrupt the stress-field, leads the slope stability threshold to be exceeded. Co-seismic slope failure probability thus depends on complex interactions between the ground-motion and the slope geology and geometry. A few seismic data are available on mountain slopes and the resolution of ground-motion models is generally low. Yet strong variation of ground-motion from one ridge to another can be felt due to site effects. We document site effects across topography and show the complexity of slope responses to earthquakes using a seismic network set across a Taiwanese ridge. Six broadband seismometers were set along the profile of this 3km wide ridge. From March 2015 to June 2016, more than 2200 earthquakes (magnitude Ml>3 and hypocentral distance<200km) were recorded. Although the sites are within a distance of hundreds of meters they all show different characteristic responses that are related to a complex combination of the geology and topography of the sites. At medium frequency corresponding to groundmotion wavelength that could affect slope stability, the ground-motion amplification is mostly related to the local geology and the topographic effect seems relatively negligible as attested by current indicators measured at the stations (PGA, PGV, Arias, SSR). However the duration of strong ground-motion at the ridge crests and slope toe seems to be related to possible resonance effects and surface wave generation due to the geometry of the topography. The strong contribution of the geology to co-seismic landslide trigger is demonstrated by the analysis of their position along hillslopes for the co-seismic landslides triggered by the Northridge earthquake (Mw 6.7, 1994, USA), the Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw 7.6, 1999, Taiwan), and the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, 2008, China). Indeed, although co-seismic landslides are statistically located higher on hillslopes than the rainfall-induced landslides, we show that this tendency is strongly modulated by the geology. According to the “potential landslides attractiveness” of geological structures, such as faults or lithological contrasts, present in the watershed, the slope failure would occur more or less upslope, where the failure probability is the highest.Slope mechanical properties are not well constrained in mountain area. Their geotechnical parameters are usually estimated using information provided by geological maps, but even for the same lithology they can strongly differ for one basin to another. Considering one simple friction model for seismic slope stability, we propose to invert Coulomb related parameters using the slope distributions of the landslides triggered by the Northridge, Chi-Chi and Wenchuan earthquakes. The spatial variation of these parameters seems to be in agreement with the lithology and soil depth at the first order.
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Claire Rault. Effets de site, endommagement et érosion des pentes dans les zones épicentrales des chaînes de montagnes actives. Sciences de la Terre. PSL Research University, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLEE006⟩. ⟨tel-02291313⟩

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