On some classical and new hypergraph invariants

Andrea Munaro 1
1 G-SCOP_OC - OC
G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production
Abstract : In this thesis, we consider several hypergraph parameters and study whether restrictions to subclasses of hypergraphs allow to obtain desirable combinatorial or algorithmic properties. Most of the parameters we consider are special instances of packings and transversals of hypergraphs.In the first part, we focus on line graphs of subcubic triangle-free graphs and show that any such graph G has an independent set of size at least 3|V(G)|/10, the bound being sharp. As an immediate consequence, we obtain a tight lower bound for the matching number of subcubic triangle-free graphs. Moreover, we prove several algorithmic results related to FEEDBACK VERTEX SET, HAMILTONIAN CYCLE and HAMILTONIAN PATH when restricted to line graphs of subcubic triangle-free graphs.Then we consider three hypergraphs having the Erdős-Pósa Property and we seek to determine the optimal bounding functions. First, we provide an optimal theta-bounding function for the class of subcubic graphs and we study CLIQUE COVER: answering a question by Cerioli et al., we show it admits a PTAS for planar graphs. Then we focus on Tuza’s Conjecture and show that the constant 2 in the statement can be improved for graphs whose edges are contained in at most four triangles and graphs obtained by forbidding certain odd-wheels. Finally, we concentrate on Jones’ Conjecture: we prove it in the case of claw-free graphs with maximum degree at most 4 and we make some observations in the case of subcubic graphs.Then we study the VC-dimension of certain set systems arising from graphs. In particular, we consider the set system on the vertex set of some graph which is induced by the family of its k-connected subgraphs. Generalizing results by Kranakis et al., we provide tight upper and lower bounds for the VC-dimension and we show that its computation is NP-complete, for each k > 0. Finally, we show that this problem (in the case k = 1) and the closely related CONNECTED DOMINATING SET are either NP-complete or polynomial-time solvable when restricted to classes of graphs obtained by forbidding a single induced subgraph.In the final part of the thesis, we consider the following meta-questions: When does a certain “hard” graph problem become “easy”?; Is there any “boundary” separating “easy” and “hard” instances? In order to answer these questions in the case of hereditary classes, Alekseev introduced the notion of a boundary class for an NP-hard problem and showed that a problem Pi is NP-hard for a finitely defined (hereditary) class X if and only if X contains a boundary class for Pi. We continue the search of boundary classes for the following problems: HAMILTONIAN CYCLE THROUGH SPECIFIED EDGE, HAMILTONIAN PATH, FEEDBACK VERTEX SET, CONNECTED DOMINATING SET and CONNECTED VERTEX COVER.
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Andrea Munaro. On some classical and new hypergraph invariants. General Topology [math.GN]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAM072⟩. ⟨tel-01680456⟩

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