GaAs/AlOx high-contrast grating mirrors for mid-infrared VCSELs

Abstract : Mid-infrared Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (MIR-VCSEL) are very attractive compact sources for spectroscopic measurements above 2μm, relevant for molecules sensing in various application domains. A long-standing issue for long wavelength VCSEL is the large structure thickness affecting the laser properties, added for the MIR to the tricky technological implementation of the antimonide alloys system. In this paper, we propose a new geometry for MIR-VCSEL including both a lateral confinement by an oxide aperture, and a high-contrast sub-wavelength grating mirror (HCG mirror) formed by the high contrast combination AIOx/GaAs in place of GaSb/A│AsSb top Bragg reflector. In addition to drastically simplifying the vertical stack, HCG mirror allows to control through its design the beam properties. The robust design of the HCG has been ensured by an original method of optimization based on particle swarm optimization algorithm combined with an anti-optimization one, thus allowing large error tolerance for the nano-fabrication. Oxide-based electro-optical confinement has been adapted to mid-infrared lasers, byusing a metamorphic approach with (Al) GaAs layer directly epitaxially grown on the GaSb-based VCSEL bottom structure. This approach combines the advantages of the will-controlled oxidation of AlAs layer and the efficient gain media of Sb-based for mid-infrared emission. We finally present the results obtained on electrically pumped mid-IR-VCSELs structures, for which we included oxide aperturing for lateral confinement and HCG as high reflectivity output mirrors, both based on AlxOy/GaAs heterostructures.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01132804
Contributor : Nicolas Fressengeas <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, March 18, 2015 - 9:20:23 AM
Last modification on : Friday, January 10, 2020 - 9:10:14 PM

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Guilhem Almuneau, Youness Laaroussi, Christyves Chevallier, Frédéric Genty, Nicolas Fressengeas, et al.. GaAs/AlOx high-contrast grating mirrors for mid-infrared VCSELs. Photonics West, SPIE, Feb 2015, San Francisco, United States. pp.93720S-93720S-9, ⟨10.1117/12.2084515⟩. ⟨hal-01132804⟩

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