Abstract : In this article, we assess the future prospects of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) from the perspective of a developing country, drawing on Vietnam as a case study. First, we review the performance of the CDM and describe the evolution of carbon markets on the path towards a post-2012 climate regime. Next, we place Vietnam in a post-2012 context, and assess potential project resources, challenges, and opportunities that could arise for the country from a future climate policy framework. Our analysis suggests that the CDM should remain in place and be improved to facilitate more meaningful participation by developing countries in climate mitigation efforts beyond 2012. Finally, the article sets out eight proposals that could help improve the CDM as the world progresses towards a new international climate policy framework.