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Les services d'eau face aux défis urbains sahéliens : insécurité hydrique et initiatives pour l'accès à l'eau dans les quartiers périphériques de Niamey (Niger)

Abstract : Long queues, buckets, yellow canisters, women and children talking around water fountains. From here starts the unending back and forth of the water carriers, using rickshaws, animal powered carts or eventually walking. This sight which has disappeared elsewhere and reminds the urban history of rich countries such as France, is everyday life for the dwellers of Sahelian cities. Niamey, Niger’s capital city, located in the heart of the Sahel region, is the country’s most important urban area. The access to public service water is characterized by a socio-spatial fragmentation consequence of a faster spatial extension than the extension of the network which is timidly growing year after year. In many districts, mainly in those having a peripheral location regarding infrastructures (factories, reservoirs), the access is also marked by socio-temporal discontinuities. They come from an urbanization of poverty, quick and badly initiated for more than 50 years. To that, one needs to add a hot and arid natural environment, competing with the anthropogenic need for the control of water resources. From then on, the fragmentation of the access to water has been unprecedented, enlarging even more the gap between the ones who are connected to the network and the ones who are not. These forgotten ones manage to satisfy their need for water using alternative services derived from the network and the ones who are autonomous manage using drillings or mini-networks. This huge amount of water services coming from individual or collective initiatives in Niamey allow a hybrid access to water for the citizens. Without this contribution, the hydric balance at the scale of the city wouldn’t be reached during heatwaves where, whether connected to the network or not , the quest for water requires imagination and know-how from the families. So, beyond this situation of hydric uncertainty described by this thesis at the scale of habitat and town, it also tries to detect the different socio-economical and socio-technical structural factors which make better access to water a problem. To understand these factors so as to put them into perspective in a space lay-our proposition of the point of access to water is a proof of the reduction of the effects which weigh heavily on the availability of water in the Sahel such as heat and poverty. In fine, conciliating uncontrolled urbanization and a lasting offer of water services, spatially and socially adapted seems to be an answer to these Sahelian urban challenges given by the example of Niamey.
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Contributor : Hassane Younsa Harouna Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Sunday, September 13, 2020 - 1:19:34 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, February 15, 2022 - 11:44:04 AM
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Hassane Younsa Harouna. Les services d'eau face aux défis urbains sahéliens : insécurité hydrique et initiatives pour l'accès à l'eau dans les quartiers périphériques de Niamey (Niger). Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Bordeaux Montaigne; Université Abdou Moumouni, Niamey, 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02937260⟩



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