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In confinio Abrincatensis regionis : l'aristocratie des espaces frontaliers du IXe au milieu du XIIe siècle

Abstract : Avranchin occupies a border position within the Duchy of Normandy, sharing its western borders with Brittany, Maine and the lordship of Bellême. Territory considered at the same time as interface, periphery and interstice, it is also a living space, result of it own dynamic, organized by the societies that inhabit it. Through its relationship to power and its local ambitions, the aristocratic group, whose formation is the result of a complex and ancient process, constitutes an essential component of border identity.Far from being a desert region, Avranchin presents in the ninth century a political and social organization in which aristocratic families are integrated. This society, whose endogenous or exogenous character is unknown, appears as the obvious product of the Neustrian regnum. It is revealed in particular by the prism of the former administrative districts, the royal action or the role of bishops and hermits. Affected by the profound transformations of the Carolingian kingdom, aristocratic families are affected by the influence of the powerful family groups of Rorgonids and Robertians, whose strategy of domination of space is felt even in Avranchin. The Breton thrust of the middle of the ninth century and the political domination of the counts of Rennes accentuate the composite and multiscalar character of this society.When the dukes of Normandy, then the counts of Mortain, extend their authority over Avranchin during the eleventh century, the aristocratic group presents a certain form of continuity. The establishment of an institutional space is the result of a skilful construction, sometimes the result of a policy of accommodation and compromise, and relies on families outside the territory or formerly located in Avranchin. These shape their power around new logics and new loyalties, induced by the ducal or comtal control, the holding of administrative offices or the guarding of fortresses. They also organize their territories according to their own dynamics, sometimes around a prioral foundation or a fortification. Networks of extended relations and vassalage, family or neighborhood circles show that the horizons of this aristocracy do not stop at the limits of his possessions, nor at those in Avranchin.Although they have never generate vast honors or great seigniorial entities, aristocratic families play an essential role along the borders. Sometimes in support of the ducal authority, but often according to their own interests and beyond the political control of the border, they greatly influence the fluctuations of power in the peripheral areas of Avranchin where their interventions take various forms. The founding of the abbey of Savigny in 1112-1113 sheds light on this complex society, strongly marked by networks of influence and alliance, where the living space and geography of the powers of the aristocratic families shape the border area.
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Claude Groud-Cordray. In confinio Abrincatensis regionis : l'aristocratie des espaces frontaliers du IXe au milieu du XIIe siècle. Histoire. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMC040⟩. ⟨tel-02517603⟩



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