Pour un entretien routier durable : prise en compte des conséquences de l'interaction chaussée-véhicule dans l'aide à la décision des politiques de resurfaçage - illustration par un cas autoroutier français

Abstract : As the principal conveyor of transportation, roads are a determinant of population well-being. Nevertheless, the budgets for the maintenance of public infrastructure keep on shrinking in most countries, along with the overall quality of road pavements. Literature has shown that a substantial surface deterioration leads to road vehicle overconsumption – in fuel, tires and suspension spare parts – with financial, macroeconomic, social and environmental impacts. Thus, considering road pavement-vehicle interactions is crucial to maintain roads in a ustainable way: we developed such a method to compare pavement resurfacing programs on a sustainable point of view for French intercity roads. First, an analytical then systemic approach led to an inventory of the stakeholders of road maintenance, and to develop indicators to quantify the impacts of different pavement overlay strategies on these stakeholders. The eleven indicators chosen to assess the sustainability of road maintenance are: the discounted expenses for the road manager; the discounted expenses and the time spent for the users; the road noise and health damages to local communities; the damages to non-renewable resources and to biodiversity for the environment; the national production and employment, the tax collection and the overall cost for the Nation. This assessment model is integrated, on the life-cycle. The calculation of indicators combines well-known methods used in other sectors and adapted to the studied subject: environmental life-cycle and life-cycle cost assessments, input-output analysis, financial and socioeconomic appraisals. We completed these methods with new data and statistical models about road maintenance techniques, environment, acoustics and economy. We sent a questionnaire to the managers of the different kinds of intercity roads in France to refine our models. Based on these answers with good representativeness, we built environmental Life Cycle Inventories and prices of road overlay techniques for the French market. We then applied this method to a ten-kilometer-long highway section in France to compare 5 scenarios of resurfacing, and highlighted few lessons learnt from this case study for sustainable highway maintenance programs. We first presented the studied road section – its characteristics, the current maintenance strategy of the manager – then explained the parametrization and scenario development to use the method, before analyzing and interpreting the results. The baseline scenario consisted in overlaying the road with 2.5 cm of hot mix asphalt every T=13 years period of time. Based on it, we quantified gains for the different stakeholders to change this period according to the following alternative scenarios: “Minimal Investment”: T=19.5 years; «50% Increased Investment »: T=9.8 years; « Ambitious Practices »: T=7.8 years; « Maximal investment »: T=5.7 years. An increased investment would lead to gains in terms of production, employment, environment (health, biodiversity, non-renewable resource consumption) and user expenses. Optima of public health return and user savings on maintenance investment have been spotted around +50% of investment compared to current practices: gains reach up to 700€ for local communities’ health and 4€ for users for each extra euro spent in road resurfacing program. On the contrary, rising the road maintenance investment entails losses in terms of tax incomes for the Nation, road manager expenses and time spent by users. Sensitivity analyses have also been conducted over three parameters: the traffic level, the resurfacing techniques and the speed of road surface deterioration. These analyses show that the more important traffic and speed of deterioration are, the higher environmental gains and users savings are. Moreover, environmental gains do not depend on road pavement materials: almost 100% of the environmental gains or losses come from the fuel consumption dependence on road surface condition.
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Anne de Bortoli. Pour un entretien routier durable : prise en compte des conséquences de l'interaction chaussée-véhicule dans l'aide à la décision des politiques de resurfaçage - illustration par un cas autoroutier français. Eco-conception. Université Paris Est, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02162111⟩

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