STRATEGIES DE GESTION DU RISQUE INONDATION, OUVRAGES D’ART ET INGENIEURS, EN LOIRE NIVERNAISE DEPUIS LE XVIII° SIECLE.

Abstract : The study of the history of the management strategies of the Loire valley flooding is of a great importance; the vulnerability to flooding has strongly increased during the last decades because of the urban growth and agricultural extension in floodplains. The study area is the Nivernais, located in the upper part of the middle Loire valley that was relatively neglected by scientific research, by comparison with the Touraine and Anjou valleys. The historical approach concerning the Loire valley vulnerability to inundations in the Nivernais demonstrates how present flooding management depends on a historical misunderstanding: “levees” (dykes) are presently considered by all (riverside inhabitants, managers and politicians) as the main infrastructure against flooding, however the dykes were built by XVIII° century engineers, who first aimed to improve navigation and to make the Loire River a modern fluvial axis. Political and economical origins of the change of use and perception of the fluvial works are investigated. As a paradox, limits of dykes in terms of protection against inundation were early identified and well known. A combination of different methods and tools is developed: analysis of maps and engineer memoires is reinforced by the elaboration of a historical GIS, that groups together data on fluvial bed evolution and engineering works, from the end of the XVII° century to the present.
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Saida Temam. STRATEGIES DE GESTION DU RISQUE INONDATION, OUVRAGES D’ART ET INGENIEURS, EN LOIRE NIVERNAISE DEPUIS LE XVIII° SIECLE.. Géographie. Université Paris 8, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-02007671⟩

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