Synthesis and characterization of smart nanoparticles

Abstract : One of the major challenges in nanomedicine is to develop nanoparticulate systems able to serve as efficient diagnostic and/or therapeutic tools against sever diseases, such as infectious or neurodegenerative disorders. To enhance the detection and interpretation contrast agents were developed to increase the signal/noise ratio. Among them, Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) and Quantum Dots (QDs) nanoparticles (NPs) have received a great attention since their development as a liver contrasting agent 20 years ago for the SPIO. Furthermore, their properties, originating from the nanosized dimension and shape, allow different bio-distribution and opportunities beyond the conventional chemical imaging agents. The opportunity to coat those biocompatible NPs by a polymer shell that can ensure a better stability of the materials in the body, enhance their bio-distribution and give them new functionalities. It has appeared then that they are very challenging for medicinal applications. In this work, we have developed new responsive SPIO and QDs based NPs that are able to carry the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and release it in physiological media and at the physiological temperature. Two families of NPs were synthesized, the first one consist in superparamagnetic Fe3O4 NPs that were functionalized by a biocompatible responsive copolymer based on 2-(2-methoxy) ethyl methacrylate (MEO2MA), oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA). The second family consists in the ZnO NPs coated by the same copolymer. For the first time, P(MEO2MAX-OEGMA100-X) was grown by activator regenerated by electron transfer–atom radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) from the NPs surfaces by surface-initiated polymerization. The core/shell NPs were fully characterized by the combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and by the physical properties of the nanostructures studied. We demonstrate the efficiency of the ARGET-ATRP process to graft polymers and copolymers at the surface of Fe3O4 and ZnO NPs. The influence of the polymer chain configuration (which leads to the aggregation of the NPs above the collapse temperature of the copolymer (LCST)) was studied. We have demonstrated that the magnetic properties of the core/shell Fe3O4-based nanostructures were only influenced by the amount of the grafted polymer and no influence of the aggregation was evidenced. This simple and fast developed process is efficient for the grafting of various co-polymers from any surfaces and the derived nanostructured materials display the combination of the physical properties of the core and the macromolecular behavior of the shell. The drug release experiments confirmed that DOX was largely released above the co-polymer LCST. Moreover, the cytocompatibility test showed that those developed NPs do not display any cytotoxicity depending on their concentration in physiological media. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the new nanomaterials developed can be considered for further use as multi-modal cancer therapy tools
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Enaam Jamal Al Dine. Synthesis and characterization of smart nanoparticles. Materials. Université de Lorraine; Université libanaise, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0054⟩. ⟨tel-01757875⟩

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