Etude de la composition isotopique (deutérium et oxygène 18) de la vapeur d'eau dans l'atmosphère sur l'île de La Réunion : apport à la compréhension des processus humides atmosphériques en région tropicale

Abstract : The isotopic composition of water vapor (dO18 and dD) is commonly used to study present and past water cycle and its varations. If this geochemical tool has been widely used to study past polar climates, many questions remain about the factors governing the isotopic composition of water in the tropics.The goal of this thesis is (1) to monitor the isotopic composition of water vapor in Reunion island (Indian Ocean), and (2) to evaluate the potential of theses measurements for understanding humid climate processes. We have set up a laser spectrometer at the Maïdo Atmospheric Observatory, allowing us to obtain a three-year chronicle of measurements.First, we analyze the temporal variability in our measurements. The isotopic composition of water vapor does not record any seasonal cyclicity. On the other hand, a strong diurnal cycle is visible, as well as a synoptic variability associated with cyclonic events.We then focus on the diurnal cycle. We show that it results from atmospheric boundary layer motions, with a marine vapor reaching the Observatory during the day, and air masses originating from the free troposphere reaching the Observatory during the night. During some nights, vapor is significantly more depleted in dO18 and dD. During the austral winter, this phenomenon is due to a modification of the regional atmospheric circulation causing a reinforcement of subsidences at Reunion Island, related to the position of the Subtropical Jet. During the austral summer, this phenomenon is sometimes due to an intensification of the subsidence at Reunion Island, and at other times to local or regional condensation processes.Finally, we focus on cyclonic events. During these periods, a strong isotopic depletion of the vapor is observed. We show that this depletion occurs 2 to 3 days before the system and continues until 3 days after. During this period, the evolution of the isotopic composition of the water vapor has a substructure. We note (1) an isotopic depletion that is a function of the distance to the center of the system, (2) an isotopic enrichment at the system wall, and (3) an abrupt evolutions of the isotopic composition of the water vapor in the rainbands due to mixing, condensation and/or recycling processes.
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Etienne Guilpart. Etude de la composition isotopique (deutérium et oxygène 18) de la vapeur d'eau dans l'atmosphère sur l'île de La Réunion : apport à la compréhension des processus humides atmosphériques en région tropicale. Océan, Atmosphère. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLV002⟩. ⟨tel-01743718⟩

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