Le marsouin commun et le phoque gris en mer d'Iroise et le long de la façade Atlantique française : génétique des populations et modifications de l'écosystème

Abstract : Marine mammals are key species of ecosystems. They undergo numerous environment modifications which require conservation plans. For that, the knowledge about population structure is primary. Studies of population genetic were led about two flagship species of the Iroise Sea. For the harbour porpoise, a specie who know a return along french coasts, our works unexpectedly show this return is the result of two movements and an hybridization between individuals of the Iberia population and those of North Europe population. These movements are, probably, linked to modifications of prey's availability caused by environment changes. For the grey seal, our works show a great genetic richness, with an ancestral structure for the mitochondrial control region and a panmixia for the microsatellites loci, which are signs of a population at the scale of Celtic Shelf. A differentiation was observed between the stranding years even and odd and a possible genetic signal of individuals from another population. Finally we led a pilot study for marine mammal genetic biodiversity observatory with the DNA barcoding technique. This study shows this observatory may be a relevant and innovative means to follow the marine mammal biology. All our results bring new information about ecosystem variations and are a help for the establishment of conservation strategy.
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Eric Alfonsi. Le marsouin commun et le phoque gris en mer d'Iroise et le long de la façade Atlantique française : génétique des populations et modifications de l'écosystème. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BRES0073⟩. ⟨tel-01643966⟩

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