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LES MOULINS HYDRAULIQUES À GRAINS ET LES MINOTERIES DE L'ALENÇONNAIS, XVII e -XX e SIÈCLES. DE LA LUMIÈRE À L'OMBRE, QUATRE SIÈCLES D'ÉVOLUTION

Résumé : The current French Department of Orne used to be a more industrialized territory than now. Hydraulic power made different “factories” or mills with diverse activities work. About 1800 there were 587 watermills for grinding grain (representing 88%of the total number), there were 46 working on steelworks sites , 12 were fulling-mills, 12 were paper mills and 11 were tanning mills. Each of them was part of a technological chain starting from raw material (cereal, fabrics and rags, oak bark, wool, ore) ending to finished product ( wheat, paper, tan, wool fabric, cast iron and iron). A whole range of people with very different functions and statuses were working together as networks, from production to distribution.The most numerous were the ones on wheatflour millers sites. This current study is about Alençon watermills for grinding grain and flour mills, between the seventeenth and the twentieth century. This long-term approach provides insight into asking what contribution this sector may have made to this small territory crossed by the river Sarthe and made of 26 communes inhabited by no more than 40,000 people. What are the specific characteristics of this milling? What was the number of mills in those times? When did milling shift into mill industry, that is when did it move from the small scale mill production to the industrial stage? What is its relationship with energy and milling capacity? How did men define themselves in this production sector? What is its place in the milling Department of Orne? The reflection focuses on three questions: technical, economic and social. The first point is a comprehensive presentation of some mills reflecting Alençon area. The second one develops the notion of economic network in which mills have evolved, between agriculture and bakery. The last one presents millers, their environment and their hard lives. An original research exploring a history receiving little attention.
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Submitted on : Monday, April 24, 2017 - 2:03:04 PM
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Patrick Birée. LES MOULINS HYDRAULIQUES À GRAINS ET LES MINOTERIES DE L'ALENÇONNAIS, XVII e -XX e SIÈCLES. DE LA LUMIÈRE À L'OMBRE, QUATRE SIÈCLES D'ÉVOLUTION. Histoire. Université Caen, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01500775⟩

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