Cycles biogéochimiques de la Mer Méditerranée : Processus et bilans

Abstract : The Mediterranean Sea is characterized by various trophic regimes due to river inputs, as well as heterogeneous nitrogen to phosphorus ratios and hydrodynamic processes, in particular vertical mixing. The objective of this thesis that was performed in the framework of the MISTRALS program is the study of the biogeochemical cycles of these various regimes that composed the Mediterranean. It is mainly based on the in situ observations collected during DeWEx project and on 3D physical/biogeochemical modeling at the scale of the entire basin and at the regional of the western sub-basin. The first study is a ten-year basin scale study which allows an ecological classification, giving bioregions in function of their physical and biogeochemical properties. Southern oligotrophic areas in both eastern and western sub-basins are characterized by low efflorescence and deep nutriclines. While in the north, near Rhodes Island, in the southern Adriatic Sea and in the Liguro-Provencal sub-basin, the summer oligotrophic regime is altered annually by intense vertical dynamics, the deep convection. This process is considered as a driving force of the thermohaline circulation and entrains an enrichment of nutrients in surface layer which allows rapid and intense blooms in spring. The Mediterranean receives organic matter from the Atlantic Ocean, while, it is a source of inorganic matter for the Atlantic. In a second part of this thesis, a high resolution model on the western sub-basin was embedded in the basin model to quantify the physical and biological processes that determine the temporal variability of the nutrient stocks and their stoichiometry. The north-western Mediterranean turns from an eutrophic regime during deep convection to an oligotrophic regime after the spring bloom. During the eutrophic regime new production dominates the primary production at the surface while during the oligotrophic regime primary production is essentially associated to subsurface regenerated one. Adjacent water masses of the convection zone and west-southern regions are characterized by a dominance of regenerated production all over the year.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 29, 2016 - 5:30:27 AM
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Fayçal Kessouri. Cycles biogéochimiques de la Mer Méditerranée : Processus et bilans. Océan, Atmosphère. Universite Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01397466v2⟩

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