Conséquences linguistiques et identitaires du contact linguistique et dialectal à Cali (Colombie): le cas des variations de l'ordre des constituants

Abstract : Colombia is a highly diverse country in sociolinguistic terms. Sixty six indigenous languages and several local varieties of Spanish attest this diversity. Indigenous minority groups as well as rural populations, coming from different regions of the country, converge within the largest urban metropoles such as Bogotá, Medellín or Cali. As a consequence, linguistic and dialectal contact situations emerge, and urge to be studied through a sociolinguistic approach as they may entail linguistic and identity-related issues In this study, I worked with a Quichuan indigenous group from Equateur. They have lived in Cali for more than fifty years and their main income activity involves selling clothes at the city center. Quichuas in this city live within an asymmetrical contact situation vis-à-vis the Spanish speaking majority group. In their linguistic repertoires we can observe the Andean Spanish variety spoken in Equateur, the Quichuan variety which is their heritage language, and the Cali Spanish variety they adopted when they arrived in the city. In their linguistic social practices, we can particularly observe linguistic variation related phenomena such as codeswitching, dialect-switching, pronominal system and article system simplification, word order variation, and phonetic variation, i.e., /s/ phoneme. For this dissertation, I especially focused on variation of word order in the Andean Spanish variety they speak. From a corpus of linguistic social practices gathered in situ during an ethnographic-like fieldwork, I observed a high frequency of syntactic OV constructions and doubling constructions. For example, ella amiga nomás es (Lit. She, friend only is), ah eso yo no entiende (Lit. Ah that I don’t understand) or even ahí yo vivo ahí (Lit. there I live there). Previous works on Andean Spanish (Haboud 1998; Merma Molina 2007; Palacios Alcaine 2013; Pfänder 2009; Muntendam 2009) suggest that these constructions are influenced by quichua word order (which is a SOV language), or that we deal with a case of linguistic convergence between Quichua and Spanish. They also suggest that pragmatic or stylistic factors (Muysken 1984) may motivate this kind of syntactic constructions in Andean Spanish. Even if these explanations are seductive, I consider that, following the multicausality principle (Thomason 2001; Heine & Kuteva 2005; Aikhenvald 2006), it is necessary to seek for multifactorial explanations to this phenomenon. In consequence, within a contact linguistic perspective taking into account language variation, I propose a plurifactorial analysis (Chamoreau & Léglise 2013; Léglise 2013) of word order variation in Andean Spanish spoken by Quichuas from Cali. To do this, two principles were followed: (1) contact phenomena are the result of the interaction of different intersystemic, intrasystemic, and extrasystemic factors; (2) the interaction of different factors may be meaningful in conversation for it may have implications on subjective and intersubjective positioning of speakers (Dubois 2002; Bucholtz & Hall 2005). I tried to show how these factors interact with each other producing word order variation. Findings reveal that word order variation is more complex than previous works suggested. In fact, it is extremely difficult to say that variations in word order are produced exclusively by language contact or by pragmatic strategies allowed by Spanish information structure. The high frequency of OV constructions observed in my corpus is the result of the interaction of several factors. Language contact, as one of these factors, may provoke a « snowball effect » (Thomason 2001) which reinforces the high productivity of OV constructions in Andean Spanish. Finally, following a sequential analysis of conversation (Auer 1995), I proposed complementary explanations which highlight the meaningful role that OV constructions may have in social interaction. They seem to contribute to the expression of difference and/or similarity through ephemeral stances performed by speakers within conversation.
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Santiago Sánchez Moreano. Conséquences linguistiques et identitaires du contact linguistique et dialectal à Cali (Colombie): le cas des variations de l'ordre des constituants . Linguistique. Université Paris Sorbonne Cité, Paris Diderot, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01314442⟩

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