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Réflexions et contributions méthodologiques à l'ACV de bâtiments neufs : modélisation du contributeur énergie

Abstract : In France, since 1974 when the first thermal regulation on buildings appeared, thermal regulations have never stopped evolving in order to make more and more energy efficient buildings. Today, it is necessary to add new indicators, and not only energy, to describe building performance.Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the basis for buildings environmental assessment. Several building LCA software currently exist; they have their own methodologies and indicators.Besides, the development of buildings producing energy and of electrical load management systems raises new questions. Indeed, the current LCA practice use results from dynamic energy simulation at yearly level whereas assessing benefits and drawbacks of such systems has to be done with a smaller time step.This thesis is particularly focused on the calculation of the environmental impacts from energy consumption during the building use phase and aims to answer the following questions:From a complete energy balance, how can we extract information necessary to the assessment of energy consumption during the building life cycle?Then, which environmental data are relevant and should be assigned?How can you express and display impacts linked to energy use?Thus, for buildings producing energy, the time step that should be used for the energy balance (i.e. differentiation between energy consumed on site, exported and imported) in order to assess properly environmental impacts of energy consumption is identified. Moreover, a building can benefit from renewable energy sharing and thus, the way to realize the energy balance for building block is determined.Temporal (short and long term) and spatial variations of energy mixes used in a building are characterized in order to show their influence on the environmental impacts. Then, the use of dynamic characterisation factors on case studies allows to better understand the potentials of dynamic LCA for buildings.Last but not least, the differences between methodologies to handle onsite energy production on the results are presented. Besides, the sensibility of the LCA results and reference values to the variation of the electricity mix environmental data is displayed.
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Marine Fouquet. Réflexions et contributions méthodologiques à l'ACV de bâtiments neufs : modélisation du contributeur énergie. Génie civil. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAA032⟩. ⟨tel-01301609⟩

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