Les dynamiques spatio-temporelles d'un petit hydrosystème arctique : approche nivo-glaciologique dans un contexte de changement climatique contemporain (bassin du glacier Austre Lovén, Spitsberg, 79°N)

Abstract : Leaning on long field campaigns, this thesis offer both qualitative and quantitative overview of polarregion nivo-glaciologic dynamics through a geographic approach, in context of climate change. Thiswork is part of the Hydro-sensor FlOWS program taking place during the International Polar Year.Upstream of this pluridisciplinary program aimed at understanding the hydrological processes of asmall polar hydrosystem, it was necessary to add a more specific study on the role of snow and icein the hydrological equation : this is the subject of this PhD.The glacial basin of Austre Lovénbreen (10 km2, Spitsberg – 79°N) served as a field of study in ageographical approach at local scale. Many methods have been tested both in the field (automaticphoto station, snow coring, DGPS and GPR) and for the data processing.Overall, this work follows the snow and ice dynamics for three years (2008, 2009 and 2010) from 15sets cores of 40 points of the basin, density measurements, nivologic profiles, mass balance and thecontinuous monitoring, on 20 points, of the air temperature. Besides the satellite images, this workalso leans on a collection of 3 daily photos acquired in 10 points of the basin. Methods were developedto geometrically correct photos in order to provide data wich could be used as a vertical projectioninto a GIS software to get quantitative informations. The geomatrical tools gave the possibility tohave accurate spatial representation at different time scale, by crossing data acquired in situ, lesdiverses lames entrant dans l’équation hydrologique (precipitation, potential melting of snow and icein relation to the lames passed).Three consecutive years of monitoring provide very different conditions that reveal temperatures’sconstant role of moderator, and the much more impulsive behavior of precipitations.This work also raises the problem of measurements and their reliability in a binding environment asthe Arctic
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Eric Bernard. Les dynamiques spatio-temporelles d'un petit hydrosystème arctique : approche nivo-glaciologique dans un contexte de changement climatique contemporain (bassin du glacier Austre Lovén, Spitsberg, 79°N). Géographie. Université de Franche-Comté, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011BESA1047⟩. ⟨tel-01290766⟩

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