TCP Protocol Optimization for HTTP Adaptive Streaming

Chiheb Ben Ameur 1, 2
2 ATNET - Advanced Technolgy in Networking
IRISA-D2 - RÉSEAUX, TÉLÉCOMMUNICATION ET SERVICES
Abstract : HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) is a streaming video technique widely used over the Internet for Video on Demand (VoD) and Live streaming services. It employs Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as transport protocol and it splits the original video inside the server into segments of same duration, called "chunks", that are transcoded into multiple quality levels. The HAS player, on the client side, requests for one chunk each chunk duration and it commonly selects the quality level based on the estimated bandwidth of the previous chunk(s). Given that the HAS clients are located inside access networks, our investigation involves several HAS clients sharing the same bottleneck link and competing for bandwidth inside the same home network. Here, a degradation of both Quality of Experience (QoE) of HAS users and Quality of Service (QoS) of the access network are often recorded. The objective of this thesis is to optimize the TCP protocol in order to solve both QoE and QoS degradations. Our first contribution consists of proposing a gateway-based shaping method, that we called Receive Window Tuning Method (RWTM); it employs the TCP flow control and passive round trip time estimation on the gateway side. We compared the performances of RWTM with another gateway-based shaping method that is based on queuing discipline, called Hierarchical Token Bucket shaping Method (HTBM). The results of evaluation indicate that RWTM outperforms HTBM not only in terms of QoE of HAS but also in terms of QoS of access network by reducing the queuing delay and significantly reducing packet drop rate at the bottleneck. Our second contribution consists of a comparative evaluation between eight combinations that result from combining two shaping methods, RWTM and HTBM, and four very common TCP variants, NewReno, Vegas, Illinois and Cubic. The results show that there is a significant discordance in performance between combinations. Furthermore, the best combination that improves performances in the majority of scenarios is when combining Illinois variant with RWTM. In addition, the results reveal the importance of an efficient updating of the slow start threshold value, ssthresh, to accelerate the convergence toward the best feasible quality level. Our third contribution consists of proposing a novel HAS-based TCP variant, that we called TcpHas; it is a TCP congestion control algorithm that takes into consideration the specifications of HAS flow. Besides, it estimates the optimal quality level of its corresponding HAS flow based on end-to-end bandwidth estimation. Then, it permanently performs HAS traffic shaping based on the encoding rate of the estimated level. It also updates ssthresh to accelerate convergence speed. A comparative performance evaluation of TcpHas with a recent and well-known TCP variant that employs adaptive decrease mechanism, called Westwood+, was performed. Results indicated that TcpHas largely outperformsWestwood+; it offers better quality level stability on the optimal quality level, it dramatically reduces the packet drop rate and it generates lower queuing delay.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 4, 2016 - 10:37:49 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01249840, version 1

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Chiheb Ben Ameur. TCP Protocol Optimization for HTTP Adaptive Streaming. Modeling and Simulation. Rennes 1, 2015. English. ⟨tel-01249840⟩

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