Étude multifactorielle de la vibriose chez l'ormeau européen Haliotis tuberculata : bases génomiques et physiologiques de la survie aux mortalités estivales chez l'ormeau européen Haliotis tuberculata

Abstract : For fifteen years, summer mortalities have been observed in wild and farmed populations of European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata, along the north French coast. These mortalities are attributed to the bacterial species Vibrio harveyi and occur in sexually mature animals, when the seawater temperature exceeds 17°C.A multifactorial approach to the study of this host-parasite interaction was done during this thesis, in order to specify the intrinsic abalone conditions in vibriosis mortalities, the infectious cycle of V. harveyi in European abalone and the role of temperature in the fulfillment of this infectious cycle, and finally the physiological response of abalone, at cellular and molecular level, when exposed to V. harveyi.The main results showed a differential gene expression between resistant and susceptible abalone during exposure to V. harveyi, indicating the importance of the physiological status of the host, in survival to vibriosis. This hypothesis is supplemented by the susceptibility of sexually immature abalone at 19°C to this disease, usually resistant, and exposed to manipulation stressor. Moreover, the study of the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection by V. harveyi in European abalone revealed a particular tropism of this vibrio pathogen for gill tissues, in the earlier hours of contact, and its invasion into the circulatory system from the first 24 hours of contact. The study of the response of abalone hemocyte and gill metabolism, at the cellular and molecular level, in the earlier hours of contact, shows 1/ a genesis of oxidative stress in gills of susceptible abalone, and 2/ an alteration of hemocyte functions, which may constitute one of the major strategies of virulence in V. harveyi.
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Marion Cardinaud. Étude multifactorielle de la vibriose chez l'ormeau européen Haliotis tuberculata : bases génomiques et physiologiques de la survie aux mortalités estivales chez l'ormeau européen Haliotis tuberculata. Zoologie des invertébrés. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BRES0062⟩. ⟨tel-01124110⟩

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