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La diversité culturelle au Paléolithique moyen récent : le Vasconien et sa signification au sein des faciès moustériens.

Abstract : The presence of cleavers in numerous Pyreneo-Cantabrian Middle Paleolithic sites led to the creation of a regional facies called the Vasconian (Bordes, 1953). Later typological analyses, using Bordes’ own cumulative frequency method, highlighted high inter-site variability and thus called into question the very existence of this facies (Cabrera Valdés, 1983), while the reoccurrence of cleavers within Middle Paleolithic assemblages was put forward as a long-term holdover inherited from the Iberian Acheulean. The goal of the present research was to reevaluate the Pyreneo-Cantabrian Late Middle Paleolithic through a comparison of a large variety of data. Results are contextualized and consolidated with newly obtained radiometric data providing a detailed and renewed chronological framework for the Mousterian with cleavers of OIS 3. The analyses conducted include technological, morphometric, and functional characterization of over 450 cleavers from nine sites attributed to the Late Middle Paleolithic. Our results were then compared to ca. 200 Acheulean cleavers from the same area. The differences between these two populations and a revised chronological framework allow us to reject the hypothesis of a sporadic persistence of cleavers after the Acheulean. We propose instead that these tools were, in fact, an independent reinvention and thus a relevant cultural marker. Additionally, entire lithic assemblages from seven sites located north of the Basque-Cantabrian area were analyzed using conventional lithic technology methods. These sites correspond to various topographic contexts (caves, rock shelters, and open air sites) and to diverse environments (alpine, coastal, and arid). Despite an expected normal amount of variability between these assemblages, we identified a shared technological tradition and propose that differences could thus be the result of different site functions. Interpreted as complementary, these variable sites are integrated into a hypothesis advancing Late Middle Paleolithic societies as having a highly structured social sphere coupled with low territorial mobility. A first attempt to build a chrono-cultural sequence for the Pyreneo-Cantabrian region is put forth in order to properly assess the Vasconian’s chronological homogeneity, regional context, and its relation with chronologically preceding and following techno-complexes. Comparisons with contemporaneous techno-complexes (especially the MTA) allow us to address their respective autonomy within a newly defined area of technical influence.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01099065
Contributor : Marianne Deschamps <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, December 31, 2014 - 9:29:36 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 22, 2021 - 3:50:21 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Saturday, April 15, 2017 - 12:24:59 PM

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Marianne Deschamps. La diversité culturelle au Paléolithique moyen récent : le Vasconien et sa signification au sein des faciès moustériens.. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. université de Toulouse 2, 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01099065⟩

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