Réponse transcriptomique et cellulaire de l'ormeau rouge Haliotis rufescens, cultivé en écloserie industrielle face aux stress métalliques et aux pathogènes : rôle des probiotiques dans la survie des organismes

Abstract : In coastal ecosystems, anthropogenic activity and natural factors induce “multi-stress” situations. Inthis study, we focused on two such stress-inducing factors: metal contamination and bacterial infection.Specifically, under controlled conditions, we examined the molecular and physiological responses of redabalone Haliotis rufescens toward the impact of a metal (copper) and a pathogen (Vibrio parahaemolyticus)with respect to this mollusk’s interaction with probiotic bacteria during the juvenile stage. First, we assessed theeffect of a consortium of three probiotic bacterial strains—Vibrio sp. C21, Agarivorans albus F1, and Vibrio sp.F15—on two abalone lifecycle-related parameters, namely, survival and growth. The results showed that,compared to the control treatment (no probiotics), the probiotics improved the performance of these twolifecycle parameters. In a second step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the juvenile abalone response tocopper stress were studied under experimental conditions, using a suppression subtractive hybridizationmethod. This method identified 108 partial sequences of genes involved in the cellular and physiologicalresponses to stress. The kinetics of gene expression were followed using 14 of these transcripts, and theirtemporal variations during the critical phase showed complex and differential regulation exerted by copper inthese organisms. We then investigated the immune response of abalone hemocytes to copper exposure. Theresults showed that exposure to the metal causes a significant dysfunction of hemocyte activities. Finally, theinteraction between probiotics and pathogenic bacteria (transcriptomic and cellular aspects) was studied and theeffects of these bacteria on mollusk performance were also investigated. The presence of pathogenic bacteriawas found to regulate gene expression of transcripts involved in key physiological functions, including thosethat regulate immune responses and energy metabolism. Examination of these interactions thus indicates therole of probiotic bacteria in performance in terms of the improved survival and growth of juvenile abaloneunder stress conditions.
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Fernando Silva Aciares. Réponse transcriptomique et cellulaire de l'ormeau rouge Haliotis rufescens, cultivé en écloserie industrielle face aux stress métalliques et aux pathogènes : rôle des probiotiques dans la survie des organismes. Zoologie des invertébrés. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BRES0058⟩. ⟨tel-01089606⟩

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