Couplage et validation de l'extension GeantA-DNA dans la plateforme de simulation Monte Carlo GATE pour l'irradiation de molécules d'ADN dans un environnement de grille de calcul

Abstract : The Monte Carlo simulation methods are successfully being used in various areas of medical physics but also at different scales, for example, from the radiation therapy treatment planning systems to the prediction of the effects of radiation in cancer cells. The Monte Carlo simulation platform GATE based on the Geant4 toolkit offers features dedicated to simulations in medical physics (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy). For radiobiology applications, the Geant4-DNA physical models are implemented to track particles till very low energy (eV) and are adapted for estimation of micro-dosimetric quantities. In order to implement a multi-scale Monte Carlo platform, we first validated the physical models of Geant4-DNA, and integrated them into GATE. Finally, we validated this implementation in the context of radiation therapy and proton therapy. In order to validate the Geant4-DNA physical models, dose point kernels for monoenergetic electrons (10 keV to 100 keV) were simulated using the physical models of Geant4-DNA and were compared to those simulated with Geant4 Standard physical models and another Monte Carlo code EGSnrc. The range and the stopping powers of electrons (7.4 eV to 1 MeV) and protons (1 keV to 100 MeV) calculated with GATE/Geant4-DNA were then compared with literature. We proposed to simulate with the GATE platform the impact of clinical and preclinical beams on cellular DNA. We modeled a clinical proton beam of 193.1 MeV, 6 MeV clinical electron beam and a X-ray irradiator beam. The beams models were validated by comparing absorbed dose computed and measured in liquid water. Then, the beams were used to calculate the frequency of energy deposits in DNA represented by different geometries. First, the DNA molecule was represented by small cylinders : 2 nm x 2 nm ( 10 bp), 5 nm x 10 nm ( nucleosome) and 25 nm x 25 nm ( chromatin fiber). All these cylinders were placed randomly in a sphere of liquid water (500 nm radius). Then we reconstructed the DNA molecule in Geant4 by reading PDB (Protein Data Bank) files representing twelve base pairs of the DNA molecule and a dinucleosome (347 base pairs). Finally, we developed a tool to correlate the positions of direct energy deposit in liquid water with the coordinates of the base pairs of DNA to calculate the number of single and double strand breaks in DNA. All calculations in this work were perfomed on the European Grid Infrastructure; performance tests are available to estimate the utility of this type of architecture for Monte Carlo calculations.
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Quang Trung Pham. Couplage et validation de l'extension GeantA-DNA dans la plateforme de simulation Monte Carlo GATE pour l'irradiation de molécules d'ADN dans un environnement de grille de calcul. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22456⟩. ⟨tel-01083289⟩

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