Mesure de la variabilité des déplacements 3D de glaciers alpins par GNSS et imagerie radar

Abstract : The aim of this PhD thesis is to measure the surface displacement variability of alpine glaciers with GNSS and radar imagery. The temperate Argentière glacier, located in the Mont Blanc massif and equiped with GPS station and corners reflectors is prticularly considered. 44 TerraSAR_X images, acquired in 2009 and 2011, are processed by offset power tracking,allowing to obtain 38 2D displacement field and 6 3D displacement fields. At the same time, 5 years of continuous GPS data from 2 stations et up on the glacier are processed, allowing to have a ground truth. GPS processing has been carefully chosen to mximise the positionning accuracy on a moving object. GPS results highlight the existence of several dynamic regimes of the Argentière surface displacement. The daily variability shows a stick slip behaviour of the displacement and the annual variability reveals a constant thinning of hte ice. Moreover, in spring 2011 the particular signal of the installation of the subglacial drainage system is identified. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) results allow the monitoring of thesurface displacement with a high spatial resolution. Temporally, a seasonnal variability is found, with large accelerations over relatively short times in melting periods. While a good correlation is obtained between the mean displacement variability of the Argentière glacier from both data sources, the thesis results highlight a significant complementarity between GPS and SAR imagery.
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Fanny Ponton. Mesure de la variabilité des déplacements 3D de glaciers alpins par GNSS et imagerie radar. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENU038⟩. ⟨tel-01067705⟩

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