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Essais sur la congestion dans les transports à Paris

Abstract : This PhD thesis focuses on urban transport congestion. Crossing traffic data and survey data, we study three major infrastructures in the central Paris area: the Paris Ring Road, the Line 1 of the Paris subway and the new streetcar on Maréchaux boulevards. First, we calculate the "economic" cost of the congestion externality, i.e. the time losses due to the fact that drivers do not internalize the full cost of their decisions. For the Paris Ring Road, this cost amounts to 160 M euros in 2007, i.e. a loss 2.5 inferior to the one found when relying on "non economic" approachs. Then, we analyze the stated preferences of Line 1 users in order to value the in vehicle comfort, i.e. the space available in carriages. Often neglected by the researchers, the contingent valuation underlines that the crowding in subways is an important phenomenon: 75% of Line 1 users would be willing to increase the travel duration by (at least) 5 minutes in order to enjoy off-peaks' level of comfort during the morning peak. The costs-benefits analysis of the streetcar on Maréchaux' boulevards is also performed. The gains of streetcar's users are over-passed by the time losses of the car drivers who stay on the Maréchaux' boulevards (because of the road space narrowing necessary to put the streetcar on dedicated lanes). The congestion externality is central in the appraisal: the benefits of subway decongestion are substantial, but weaker than the additional congestion costs on the adjacent Paris Ring Road. The Net Present Value of the streetcar is clearly negative and questions the social desirability of the infrastructure. Finally, we discuss the rise, between 2000 and 2007, of the generalized cost of moving in Paris, as the related territorial evolutions.
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Martin Koning. Essais sur la congestion dans les transports à Paris. Economies et finances. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00717656⟩

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