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Transposable elements and genome evolution: the case of Drosophila simulans

Christian Biémont 1, 2 Cristina Vieira 1, 2 Nathalie Borie 1 David Lepetit 1 
2 Eléments transposables, évolution, populations
GINSENG - Département génétique, interactions et évolution des génomes [LBBE]
Abstract : Drosophila simulans presents a large variation in copy number among various transposable elements (TEs) and among natural populations for a given element. Some elements such as HMS beagle, blood, flea, tirant, coral, prygun, jockey, F, nomade and mariner are absent in most populations, except in one or two which have copies on their chromosome arms. This suggests that some TEs are being awakened in D. simulans and are in the process of invading the species while it is colonizing the world. The elements 412 and roo/B104 present a wide insertion polymorphism among D. simulans populations, but only the 412 copy number follows a temperature cline. One population (Canberra from Australia) has a very high copy number for the 412 element and for many other TEs as well, indicating that some populations may have lost control of some of their TEs. While the 412 transposition rate is similar in all populations, its transcription level throughout developmental stages varies with populations, depending on copy number. Populations with 412 copy number higher than 10-12 exhibit co-suppression, while the expression in populations with lower numbers depends on the insertion location. All these results suggest genomic invasions by 412 and other TEs during the worldwide spread of the D. simulans species.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03270220
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Christian Biémont, Cristina Vieira, Nathalie Borie, David Lepetit. Transposable elements and genome evolution: the case of Drosophila simulans. Genetica, Springer Verlag, 1999, 107, pp.113-120. ⟨10.1023/A:1003937603230⟩. ⟨hal-03270220⟩

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