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Species diversity and insecticide resistance within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand

Abstract : Background: Members of theAnopheles hyrcanusgroup have been incriminated as important malaria vectors. This study aims to identify the species and explore the insecticide susceptibility profile within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand where increasing numbers of malaria cases were reported in 2014.Methods: Between 2013 and 2015, five rounds of mosquito collections were conducted using human landing and cattle bait techniques during both the rainy and dry seasons. Anopheles mosquitoes were morphologically identified and their insecticide susceptibility status was investigated. Synergist bioassays were carried out with An. hyrcanus (s.l.) due to their resistance to all insecticides. An ITS2-PCR assay was conducted to identify to species the Hyrcanus group specimens.Results: Out of 10,361 Anopheles females collected, representing 18 taxa in 2 subgenera, 71.8% were morphologically identified as belonging to the Hyrcanus Group (subgenus Anopheles), followed by An. barbirostris group (7.9%), An. nivipes (6.5%), An. philippinensis (5.9%) and the other 14 Anopheles species. Specimens of the Hyrcanus Group were more prevalent during the rainy season and were found to be highly zoophilic. Anopheles hyrcanus (s.l.) was active throughout the night, with an early peak of activity between 18:00 h and 21:00 h. ITS2-PCR assay conducted on 603 DNA samples from specimens within the Hyrcanus Group showed the presence of five sisters species. Anopheles peditaeniatus was the most abundant species (90.5%,n= 546), followed by An. nitidus (4.5%,n= 27), An. nigerrimus (4.3%,n= 26), An. argyropus (0.5%,n= 3), and An. sinensis (0.2%,n= 1). All An. hyrcanus (s.l.) specimens that were found resistant to insecticides (deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 0.75% and DDT 4% and synergist tests) belonged to An. peditaeniatus. The degree of resistance in An. peditaeniatus to each of these three insecticides was approximately 50%. Addition of PBO (Piperonyl butoxide), but not DEF (S.S.S-tributyl phosphotritioate), seemed to restore susceptibility, indicating a potential role of oxidases as a detoxifying enzyme resistance mechanism.Conclusions: A better understanding of mosquito diversity related to host preference, biting activity and insecticide resistance status will facilitate the implementation of locally adapted vector control strategies.
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Anchana Sumarnrote, Hans Overgaard, Vincent Corbel, Kanutcharee Thanispong, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, et al.. Species diversity and insecticide resistance within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. Parasites & Vectors, 2020, 13, pp.525. ⟨10.1186/s13071-020-04389-4⟩. ⟨hal-03083171⟩

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