Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga 1 Krisztina Krizsán 1 Csenge Földi 1 Bálint Dima 2 Marisol Sánchez-García 3 Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez 4 Gergely J Szöllősi 2 János G Szarkándi 5 Viktor Papp 6 László Albert 7 William Andreopoulos 8 Claudio Angelini 9 Vladimír Antonín 10 Kerrie W Barry 8 Neale L Bougher 11 Peter Buchanan 12 Bart Buyck 13, 14, 15 Viktória Bense 1 Pam Catcheside 16 Mansi Chovatia 8 Jerry Cooper 12 Wolfgang Dämon Dennis Desjardin 17 Péter Finy József Geml 18 Sajeet Haridas 8 Karen Hughes 19 Alfredo Justo 3 Dariusz Karasiński 20 Ivona Kautmanova 21 Brigitta Kiss 1 Sándor Kocsubé 5 Heikki Kotiranta 22 Kurt M Labutti 8 Bernardo E Lechner 23 Kare Liimatainen 24 Anna Lipzen 8 Zoltán Lukács Sirma Mihaltcheva 8 Louis N Morgado 18, 25 Tuula Niskanen 24 Machiel E Noordeloos 18 Robin A Ohm 26 Beatriz Ortiz-Santana 27 Clark Ovrebo 28 Nikolett Rácz 5 Robert Riley 8 Anton Savchenko 29, 30 Anton Shiryaev 31 Karl Soop 32 Viacheslav Spirin 29 Csilla Szebenyi 5, 33 Michal Tomšovský 34 Rodham E Tulloss 35, 36 Jessie Uehling 37 Igor V Grigoriev 8, 37 Csaba Vágvölgyi 5 Tamás Papp 5, 30 Francis Martin 38 Otto Miettinen 29 David S Hibbett 3 László G Nagy 1, *
Abstract : Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with the spread of (sub)tropical coniferous forests and a warming climate. A possible mass extinction, several clade-specific adaptive radiations and morphological diversification of fruiting bodies followed during the Cretaceous and the Paleogene, convergently giving rise to the classic toadstool morphology, with a cap, stalk and gills (pileate-stipitate morphology). This morphology is associated with increased rates of lineage diversification, suggesting it represents a key innovation in the evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. The increase in mushroom diversity started during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiation event, an era of humid climate when terrestrial communities dominated by gymnosperms and reptiles were also expanding.
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Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, et al.. Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution. Nature Ecology & Evolution, Nature, 2019, 3 (4), pp.668-678. ⟨10.1038/s41559-019-0834-1⟩. ⟨hal-02352505⟩

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