Experimental demonstration of quantum advantage for one-way communication complexity surpassing best-known classical protocol

Abstract : Demonstrating a quantum advantage with currently available experimental systems is of utmost importance in quantum information science. While this remains elusive for quantum computation, the field of communication complexity offers the possibility to already explore and showcase this advantage for useful tasks. Here, we define such a task, the Sampling Matching problem, which is inspired by the Hidden Matching problem and features an exponential gap between quantum and classical protocols in the one-way communication model. Our problem allows by its conception a photonic implementation based on encoding in the phase of coherent states of light, the use of a fixed size linear optic circuit, and single-photon detection. This enables us to demonstrate in a proof-of-principle experiment an advantage in the transmitted information resource over the best known classical protocol, something impossible to reach for the original Hidden Matching problem. Our demonstration has implications in quantum verification and cryptographic settings.
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Niraj Kumar, Iordanis Kerenidis, Eleni Diamanti. Experimental demonstration of quantum advantage for one-way communication complexity surpassing best-known classical protocol. Nature Communications, Nature Publishing Group, 2019, 10, pp.4152. ⟨10.1038/s41467-019-12139-z⟩. ⟨hal-02297768⟩

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