Bayesian joint muographic and gravimetric inversion applied to volcanoes

Abstract : Gravimetry is a technique widely used to image the structure of the Earth. However, inversions are ill-posed and the imaging power of the technique rapidly decreases with depth. To overcome this limitation, muography, a new imaging technique relying on high energy atmospheric muons, has recently been developed. Because muography only provides integrated densities above the detector from a limited number of observation points, inversions are also ill-posed. Previous studies have shown that joint muographic and gravimetric inversions better reconstruct the 3-D density structure of volcanic edifices than independent density inversions. These studies address the ill-posedness of the joint problem by regularizing the solution with respect to a prior density model. However, the obtained solutions depend on some hyperparameters, which are either determined relative to a single test case or rely on ad-hoc parameters. This can lead to inaccurate retrieved models, sometimes associated with artefacts linked to the muon data acquisition. In this study, we use a synthetic example based on the Puy de Dôme volcano to determine a robust method to obtain the resulting model closest to the synthetic model and devoid of acquisition artefacts. We choose a Bayesian approach to include an a priori density model and a smoothing by a Gaussian spatial correlation function relying on two hyperparameters: an a priori density standard deviation and an isotropic spatial correlation length. This approach has the advantage to provide a posteriori standard deviations on the resulting densities. Using our synthetic volcano, we investigate the most reliable criterion to determine the hyperparameters. Our results suggest that k-fold Cross-Validation Sum of Squares and the Leave One Out methods are more robust criteria than the classically used L-curves. The determined hyperparameters allow to overcome the artefacts linked to the data acquisition geometry, even when only a limited number of muon telescopes is available. We also illustrate the behaviour of the inversion in case of offsets in the a priori density or in the data and show that they lead to recognizable structures that help identify them.
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Anne Barnoud, Valérie Cayol, Valentin Niess, Cristina Carloganu, Peter Lelièvre, et al.. Bayesian joint muographic and gravimetric inversion applied to volcanoes. Geophysical Journal International, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019, 218 (3), pp.2179-2194. ⟨10.1093/gji/ggz300⟩. ⟨hal-02196499⟩

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