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Mixed circular codes

Abstract : By an extensive statistical analysis in genes of bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses, a maximal C3-self-complementary trinucleotide circular code has been found to have the highest average occurrence in the reading frame of the ribosome during translation. Circular codes may play an important role in maintaining the correct reading frame. On the other hand, as several evolutionary theories propose primeval codes based on dinucleotides, trinucleotides and tetranucleotides, mixed circular codes are investigated. By using a graph-theoretical approach of circular codes recently developed, we study mixed circular codes, which are the union of a dinucleotide circular code, a trinucleotide circular code and a tetranucleotide circular code. Maximal mixed circular codes of (di,tri)-nucleotides, (tri,tetra)-nucleotides and (di,tri,tetra)-nucleotides are constructed, respectively. In particular, we show that any maximal dinucleotide circular code of size 6 can be embedded into a maximal mixed (di,tri)-nucleotide circular code such that its trinucleotide component is a maximal C3-comma-free code. The growth function of self-complementary mixed circular codes of dinucleotides and trinucleotides is given. Self-complementary mixed circular codes could have been involved in primitive genetic processes.
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Contributor : Jean-Sébastien Sereni <>
Submitted on : Monday, November 18, 2019 - 10:23:44 AM
Last modification on : Monday, November 16, 2020 - 11:40:07 AM


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Elena Fimmel, Christian Michel, François Pirot, Jean-Sébastien Sereni, Lutz Strüngmann. Mixed circular codes. Mathematical Biosciences, Elsevier, 2019, 317, pp.108231. ⟨10.1016/j.mbs.2019.108231⟩. ⟨hal-02188407v2⟩



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