Gaia Data Release 2. Mapping the Milky Way disc kinematics

D. Katz 1 T. Antoja M. Romero-Gomez 2 R. Drimmel C. Reylé 3 M. Seabroke C. Soubiran 4 C. Babusiaux 1, 5 P. Di Matteo 1 F. Figueras 6 E. Poggio C. Robin 3 D. Evans A.G.A. Brown A. Vallenari T. Prusti 7 J. de Bruijne C. Bailer-Jones M. Biermann L. Eyer 8 F. Jansen C. Jordi 9 A. Klioner U. Lammers 7 L. Lindegren X. Luri 10 F. Mignard 11 C. Panem 12 D. Pourbaix 13 S. Randich P. Sartoretti 1 H. Siddiqui F. van Leeuwen A. Walton F. Arenou 1 U. Bastian 14 M. Cropper M. Lattanzi 15 J. Bakker C. Cacciari J. Casta N L. Chaoul N. Cheek F. de Angeli 16 C. Fabricius R. Guerra 17 B. Holl E. Masana 18 R. Messineo N. Mowlavi K. Nienartowicz P. Panuzzo 1 J. Portell M. Riello P. Tanga 11 F. Thévenin 11 G. Gracia-Abril G. Comoretto M. Garcia-Reinaldos D. Teyssier 19 M. Altmann 20 R. Andrae M. Audard 21 I. Bellas-Velidis K. Benson 22 J. Berthier 23 R. Blomme 24 P. Burgess G. Busso 16 B. Carry 25 A. Cellino 26 G. Clementini 27 M. Clotet O. Creevey M. Davidson 28 J. de Ridder 29 L. Delchambre A. Dell’oro C. Ducourant 30 J. Fernández-Hernández 3 M. Fouesneau Y. Fremat 24 L. Galluccio 31 M. García-Torres J. González-Núñez J. González-Vidal E. Gosset P. Guy J. Halbwachs C. Hambly D. Harrison J. Hernandez D. Hestroffer 32 T. Hodgkin A. Hutton Gérard Jasniewicz 33 A. Jean-Antoine-Piccolo S. Jordan A. Korn 34 A. Krone-Martins C. Lanzafame T. Lebzelter W. Löffler M. Manteiga M. Marrese M. Martín-Fleitas A. Moitinho 35 A. Mora 36 K. Muinonen 37 J. Osinde E. Pancino 38 T. Pauwels 24 J.M. Petit A. Recio-Blanco 11 P. Richards L. Rimoldini M. Sarro C. Siopis M. Smith A. Sozzetti M. Süveges J. Torra W. van Reeven U. Abbas A. Abreu Aramburu S. Accart C. Aerts 29 G. Altavilla M. Alvarez 39 R. Alvarez J. Alves R. Anderson 40 A. Andrei E. Anglada Varela E. Antiche B. Arcay T. Astraatmadja 41 N. Bach 42 G. Baker L. Balaguer-Nunez 43 P. Balm C. Barache 20 C. Barata D. Barbato F. Barblan P. Barklem 44 D. Barrado 45 M. Barros M. Barstow 46 L. Bartholomé Muñoz J. Bassilana U. Becciani M. Bellazzini A. Berihuete Stefano Bertone L. Bianchi 23 O. Bienaymé 47 S. Blanco-Cuaresma T. Boch C. Boeche A. Bombrun R. Borrachero D. Bossini S. Bouquillon 20 G. Bourda 30 A. Bragaglia L. Bramante M. Breddels A. Bressan N. Brouillet T. Brüsemeister E. Brugaletta B. Bucciarelli A. Burlacu D. Busonero G. Butkevich R. Buzzi E. Caffau 1 R. Cancelliere G. Cannizzaro T. Cantat-Gaudin 9 R. Carballo T. Carlucci 20 M. Carrasco L. Casamiquela M. Castellani A. Castro-Ginard 9 P. Charlot L. Chemin A. Chiavassa G. Cocozza G. Costigan S. Cowell F. Crifo 1 M. Crosta C. Crowley J. Cuypers† C. Dafonte Y. Damerdji A. Dapergolas P. David M. David P. de Laverny 11 F. de Luise 48 R. de March R. de Souza A. de Torres J. Debosscher 49 E. del Pozo M. Delbò 31 A. Delgado E. Delgado S. Diakite 3 C. Diener E. Distefano C. Dolding P. Drazinos J. Duran B. Edvardsson H. Enke K. Eriksson 34 P. Esquej G. Eynard Bontemps C. Fabre M. Fabrizio S. Faigler A. Falc A M. Farràs Casas L. Federici 50 G. Fedorets P. Fernique 47 F. Filippi 51 K. Findeisen A. Fonti E. Fraile M. Fraser B. Frézouls M. Gai 52 S. Galleti D. Garabato F. García-Sedano A. Garofalo N. Garralda A. Gavel P. Gavras J. Gerssen R. Geyer P. Giacobbe G. Gilmore S. Girona G. Giuffrida F. Glass M. Gomes 53 M. Granvik A. Gueguen 1 A. Guerrier 12 J. Guiraud R. Gutié R. Haigron 1 D. Hatzidimitriou 54 M. Hauser M. Haywood U. Heiter 55 A. Helmi J. Heu T. Hilger D. Hobbs W. Hofmann G. Holl E. Huckle A. Hypki V. Icardi K. Janßen G. Jevardat de Fombelle G. Jonker L. Juhasz F. Julbe 9 A. Karampelas A. Kewley J. Klar A. Kochoska R. Kohley 19 K. Kolenberg M. Kontizas E. Kontizas E. Koposov G. Kordopatis 11 Z. Kostrzewa-Rutkowska P. Koubsky S. Lambert F. Lanza Y. Lasne J. Lavigne Y. Le Fustec C. Le Poncin-Lafitte 56 Y. Lebreton 1 S. Leccia 57 N. Leclerc 58 I. Lecoeur-Taibi H. Lenhardt F. Leroux S. Liao E. Licata P. Lindstrøm T. Lister E. Livanou A. Lobel 24 M. Lopez S. Managau R. Mann G. Mantelet O. Marchal M. Marchant M. Marconi S. Marinoni G. Marschalkó D. Marshall M. Martino G. Marton 59 N. Mary D. Massari G. Matijevič T. Mazeh 60 P. Mcmillan S. Messina D. Michalik R. Millar R. Molina 61 D. Molina L. Molnar P. Montegriffo R. Mor T. Mor D. Mor F. Mulone T. Muraveva I. Musella G. Nelemans L. Nicastro L. Noval W. O’mullane C. Ordenovic 11 D. Ordóñez-Blanco P. Osborne C. Pagani I. Pagano 62 F. Pailler H. Palacin L. Palaversa A. Panahi M. Pawlak M. Piersimoni F. Pineau E. Plachy G. Plum E. Poujoulet A. Prša L. Pulone E. Racero S. Ragaini N. Rambaux M. Ramos-Lerate S. Regibo F. Riclet V. Ripepi 57 A. Riva G. Rixon 16 T. Roegiers M. Roelens N. Rowell F. Royer 1 L. Ruiz-Dern 1 G. Sadowski T. Sagristà Sellés J. Sahlmann J. Salgado 63 E. Salguero N. Sanna T. Santana-Ros 64 M. Sarasso H. Savietto M. Schultheis E. Sciacca M. Segol C. Segovia D. Segransan 65 C. Shih L. Siltala F. Silva R. Smart 26 K. Smith E. Solano 66 F. Solitro R. Sordo S. Soria Nieto J. Souchay 20 A. Spagna F. Spoto U. Stampa A. Steele H. Steidelmüller C. Stephenson H. Stoev F. Suess J. Surdej 67 L. Szabados 68 E. Szegedi-Elek D. Tapiador F. Taris G. Tauran M. Taylor R. Teixeira 69 D. Terrett P. Teyssandier 20 W. Thuillot 32 A. Titarenko F. Clotet C. Turon 1 A. Ulla E. Utrilla S. Uzzi M. Vaillant G. Valentini V. Valette 12 A. van Elteren E. van Hemelryck M. van Leeuwen M. Vaschetto A. Vecchiato 52 J. Veljanoski Y. Viala 1 D. Vicente S. Vogt C. von Essen H. Voss V. Votruba S. Voutsinas G. Walmsley M. Weiler O. Wertz T. Wevers 70 Ł. Wyrzykowski A. Yoldas 16 M. Žerjal H. Ziaeepour J. Zorec 71 S. Zschocke 72 S. Zucker C. Zurbach 33 T. Zwitter
52 Astrometry
OATo - INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino
Abstract : Context. The second Gaia data release (Gaia DR2) contains high-precision positions, parallaxes, and proper motions for 1.3 billion sources as well as line-of-sight velocities for 7.2 million stars brighter than GRVS = 12 mag. Both samples provide a full sky coverage. Aims. To illustrate the potential of Gaia DR2, we provide a first look at the kinematics of the Milky Way disc, within a radius of several kiloparsecs around the Sun. Methods. We benefit for the first time from a sample of 6.4 million F-G-K stars with full 6D phase-space coordinates, precise par- allaxes (σπ/π ≤ 20%), and precise Galactic cylindrical velocities (median uncertainties of 0.9-1.4 kms−1 and 20% of the stars with uncertainties smaller than 1 km s−1 on all three components). From this sample, we extracted a sub-sample of 3.2 million giant stars to map the velocity field of the Galactic disc from ∼5 kpc to ∼13 kpc from the Galactic centre and up to 2 kpc above and below the plane. We also study the distribution of 0.3 million solar neighbourhood stars (r < 200 pc), with median velocity uncertainties of 0.4 km s−1 , in velocity space and use the full sample to examine how the over-densities evolve in more distant regions. Results. Gaia DR2 allows us to draw 3D maps of the Galactocentric median velocities and velocity dispersions with unprecedented accuracy, precision, and spatial resolution. The maps show the complexity and richness of the velocity field of the galactic disc. We observe streaming motions in all the components of the velocities as well as patterns in the velocity dispersions. For example, we confirm the previously reported negative and positive galactocentric radial velocity gradients in the inner and outer disc, respectively. Here, we see them as part of a non-axisymmetric kinematic oscillation, and we map its azimuthal and vertical behaviour. We also witness a new global arrangement of stars in the velocity plane of the solar neighbourhood and in distant regions in which stars are organised in thin substructures with the shape of circular arches that are oriented approximately along the horizontal direction in the U − V plane. Moreover, in distant regions, we see variations in the velocity substructures more clearly than ever before, in particular, variations in the velocity of the Hercules stream. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 provides the largest existing full 6D phase-space coordinates catalogue. It also vastly increases the number of available distances and transverse velocities with respect to Gaia DR1. Gaia DR2 offers a great wealth of information on the Milky Way and reveals clear non-axisymmetric kinematic signatures within the Galactic disc, for instance. It is now up to the astronomical community to explore its full potential.
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D. Katz, T. Antoja, M. Romero-Gomez, R. Drimmel, C. Reylé, et al.. Gaia Data Release 2. Mapping the Milky Way disc kinematics. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2018, 616, pp.A11. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201832865⟩. ⟨hal-02023530⟩

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