Severe atypical pneumonia in critically ill patients: a retrospective multicenter study

Abstract : Background: Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) patients could require intensive care unit (ICU) admission for acute respiratory failure. Methods: Adults admitted between 2000 and 2015 to 20 French ICUs with proven atypical pneumonia were retrospectively described Patients with MP were compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia patients admitted to ICUs. Results: A total of 104 patients were included, 71 men and 33 women, with a median age of 56[44-67] years. MP was the causative agent for 76(73%) patients and CP for 28(27%) patients. Co-infection was documented for 18 patients (viruses for 8[47%] patients). Median number of involved quadrants on chest X-ray was 2[1-4], with alveolar opacities (n = 61,75%), interstitial opacities (n = 32,40%). Extra-pulmonary manifestations were present in 34 (33%) patients. Mechanical ventilation was required for 75(72%) patients and vasopressors for 41(39%) patients. ICU length of stay was 16.5[9.5-30.5] days, and 11(11%) patients died in the ICU. Compared with SP patients, MP patients had more extensive interstitial pneumonia, fewer pleural effusion, and a lower mortality rate [6(8%) vs. 17(22%), p = 0.013]. According MCA analysis, some characteristics at admission could discriminate MP and SP.MP was more often associated with hemolytic anemia, abdominal manifestations, and extensive chest radiograph abnormalities. SP-P was associated with shock, confusion, focal crackles, and focal consolidation. Conclusion: In this descriptive study of atypical bacterial pneumonia requiring ICU admission, mortality was 11%. The comparison with SP pneumonia identified clinical, laboratory, and radiographic features that may suggest MP or CP pneumonia.
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S. Valade, L. Biard, V. Lemiale, Laurent Argaud, F. Pene, et al.. Severe atypical pneumonia in critically ill patients: a retrospective multicenter study. Annals of Intensive Care, 2018, 8, pp.9. ⟨hal-02003573⟩



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