Short Communication: High Viral Load and Multidrug Resistance Due to Late Switch to Second-Line Regimens Could Be a Major Obstacle to Reach the 90-90-90 UNAIDS Objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract : In the context of lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) as early as possible and to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic as a public health treat by 2030, it is important to evaluate the potential risk of transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in resource-limited countries (RLCs). Since HIV transmission is driven by HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL), we studied the association between plasma VL and HIVDR profiles in 451 adults failing first-line ART from the 2LADY-ANRS12169/EDCTP trial in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, and Senegal. Median duration on first-line ART was 49 months (IQR: 33-69) and 91% patients were asymptomatic. Genotypic drug resistance testing was successful for 446 patients and 98.7% of them were resistant to at least one of the first-line drugs; 40.6% and 55.8% were resistant to two or three drugs of their ongoing first-line ART, respectively. The median VL was higher in patients with HIVDR to all ongoing first-line drugs than in those still susceptible to at least one drug; 4.7 log10 copies/ml (IQR: 4.3-5.2) versus 4.2 log10 copies/ml (IQR: 3.7-4.7), respectively (p < .001). The proportion of patients with HIVDR to all ongoing first-line drugs was highest (77.9% [95/122]) in patients with VL >5.0 log10 copies/ml. High rates of cross-resistance to other nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors were observed and were also highest in patients with high VL. Without improvement of patient monitoring to avoid late switch to second-line regimens, a potential new epidemic caused by HIVDR strains could emerge in sub-Saharan Africa and compromise all efforts to reach 90-90-90 UNAIDS objective by 2020.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01864930
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Submitted on : Thursday, August 30, 2018 - 4:02:58 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 19, 2019 - 1:15:41 AM

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Emilande Guichet, Avelin Aghokeng, Laetitia Serrano, Guillaume Bado, Coumba Touré-Kane, et al.. Short Communication: High Viral Load and Multidrug Resistance Due to Late Switch to Second-Line Regimens Could Be a Major Obstacle to Reach the 90-90-90 UNAIDS Objectives in Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Mary Ann Liebert, 2016, 32 (12), pp.1159-1162. ⟨10.1089/AID.2016.0010⟩. ⟨hal-01864930⟩

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