Chemistry in disks. XI. Sulfur-bearing species as tracers of protoplanetary disk physics and chemistry: the DM Tau case

Abstract : Context. Several sulfur-bearing molecules are observed in the interstellar medium and in comets, in strong contrast to protoplanetary disks where only CS, H$_2$CS and SO have been detected so far. Aims. We combine observations and chemical models to constrain the sulfur abundances and their sensitivity to physical and chemical conditions in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk. Methods. We obtained $0.5^{''}$ ALMA observations of DM Tau in Bands 4 and 6 in lines of CS, SO, SO$_2$, OCS, CCS, H$_2$CS and H$_2$S, achieving a $\sim 5$ mJy sensitivity. Using the non-LTE radiative transfer code RADEX and the forward-modeling tool DiskFit, disk-averaged CS column densities and upper limits for the other species were derived. Results. Only CS was detected with a derived column density of $\sim 2-6 \times 10^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$. We report a first tentative detection of SO$_2$ in DM Tau. The upper limits range between $\sim 10^{11}$ and $10^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$ for the other S-bearing species. The best-fit chemical model matching these values requires a gas-phase C/O ratio of > 1 at $r \sim 50-100$ au. With chemical modeling we demonstrate that sulfur-bearing species could be robust tracers of the gas-phase C/O ratio, surface reaction rates, grain size and UV intensities. Conclusions. The lack of detections of a variety of sulfur-bearing molecules in DM Tau other than CS implies a dearth of reactive sulfur in the gas phase, either through efficient freeze-out or because most of the elemental sulfur is in other large species, as found in comets. The inferred high CS/SO and CS/SO$_2$ ratios require a non-solar C/O gas-phase ratio of > 1, consistent with the recent observations of hydrocarbon rings in DM Tau. The stronger depletion of oxygen-bearing S-species compared to CS is likely linked to the low observed abundances of gaseous water in DM Tau and points to a removal mechanism of oxygen from the gas.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01819913
Contributeur : Marie-Paule Pomies <>
Soumis le : jeudi 21 juin 2018 - 10:18:25
Dernière modification le : mercredi 19 septembre 2018 - 01:31:08

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D. Semenov, C. Favre, D. Fedele, S. Guilloteau, R. Teague, et al.. Chemistry in disks. XI. Sulfur-bearing species as tracers of protoplanetary disk physics and chemistry: the DM Tau case. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2018, 617, pp.id.A28. 〈10.1051/0004-6361/201832980〉. 〈hal-01819913〉

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