A combined experimental and theoretical study of the thermal [3+2] cycloaddition of carbonyl ylides with activated alkenes

Abstract : 4-Benzoyl-3,5-diaryltetrahydrofuran-2,2-dicarbonitriles were first synthesized from 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes and chalcones at toluene reflux; the 4,5-cis products proved to be predominantly formed and were isolated. Whereas shortened reaction times were observed by using microwave irradiation or catalytic cuprous chloride, no significant stereoselectivity change was in general noticed. Reacting 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes with 2-cyclopentenone next afforded 3-aryl-4-oxohexahydro-1H-cyclopenta[c]furan-1,1-dicarbonitriles, and the endo stereoisomers were isolated. That no stereoselectivity change was noticed in the presence of cuprous chloride rather suggests an impact of the salt on the epoxide ring opening. Finally, treatment of 2,2-dicyano-3-aryloxiranes by 2-morpholinoacrylonitrile yielded 3-cyano-3-morpholino-5-phenyltetrahydrofuran-2,2-dicarbonitriles from which the preponderant trans isomers were isolated. Importantly, the molecular mechanism of the domino reaction between 2,2-dicyano-3-phenyloxirane and 2-cyclopentenone was studied. The rate-determining thermal ring opening of the oxirane is followed by a non-concerted pseudoradical-type reaction of the carbonyl ylide with 2-cyclopentenone. Using the bond evolution theory also allowed the regioselectivity of this non-polar reaction to be explained.
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Journal of Molecular Structure, Elsevier, 2018, 1157, pp.276-287. 〈10.1016/j.molstruc.2017.12.052〉
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S. Hamza-Reguig, G. Bentabed-Ababsa, L.R. Domingo, M. Ríos-Gutiérrez, S. Philippot, et al.. A combined experimental and theoretical study of the thermal [3+2] cycloaddition of carbonyl ylides with activated alkenes. Journal of Molecular Structure, Elsevier, 2018, 1157, pp.276-287. 〈10.1016/j.molstruc.2017.12.052〉. 〈hal-01695551〉

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