Long-lasting antiviral innate immune priming in the Lophotrochozoan Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

Abstract : In the last decade, a paradigm shift has emerged in comparative immunology. Invertebrates can no longer be considered to be devoid of specific recognition and immune memory. However, we still lack a comprehensive view of these phenomena and their molecular mechanisms across phyla, especially in terms of duration, specificity, and efficiency in a natural context. In this study, we focused on a Lophotrochozoan/virus interaction, as antiviral priming is mostly overlooked in molluscs. Juvenile Crassostrea gigas oysters experience reoccurring mass mortalities events from Ostreid herpes virus 1 with no existing therapeutic treatment. Our results showed that various nucleic acid injections can prime oysters to trigger an antiviral state ultimately protecting them against a subsequent viral infection. Focusing on poly(I:C) as elicitor, we evidenced that it protected from an environmental infection, by mitigating viral replication. That protection seemed to induce a specific antiviral response as poly(I:C) fails to protect against a pathogenic bacteria. Finally, we showed that this phenomenon was long-lasting, persisting for at least 5 months thus suggesting for the first time the existence of innate immune memory in this invertebrate species. This study strengthens the emerging hypotheses about the broad conservation of innate immune priming and memory mechanisms in Lophotrochozoans.
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Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2017, 7 (1), pp.13143. 〈10.1038/s41598-017-13564-0〉
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Maxime Lafont, Bruno Petton, Agnès Vergnes, Marianna Pauletto, Amélie Segarra, et al.. Long-lasting antiviral innate immune priming in the Lophotrochozoan Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2017, 7 (1), pp.13143. 〈10.1038/s41598-017-13564-0〉. 〈hal-01632346〉

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