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Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records

Sébastien Guillet 1 Christophe Corona 2 Markus Stoffel 1, 3 Myriam Khodri 4 Franck Lavigne 5 Pablo Ortega 6 Nicolas Eckert 7 Pascal Dkengne Sielenou 7 Valérie Daux 8, 9 Olga v. Churakova (sidorova) 1 Nicole Davi 10 Jean-Louis Edouard 11 Yong Zhang 12, 13 Brian H. Luckman 14 Vladimir S. Myglan Joel Guiot 15 Martin Beniston 3 Valérie Masson-Delmotte 8 Clive Oppenheimer 16
Abstract : The eruption of Samalas in Indonesia in 1257 ranks among the largest sulfur-rich eruptions of the Common Era with sulfur deposition in ice cores reaching twice the volume of the Tambora eruption in 1815. Sedimentological analyses of deposits confirm the exceptional size of the event, which had both an eruption magnitude and a volcanic explosivity index of 7. During the Samalas eruption, more than 40 km 3 of dense magma was expelled and the eruption column is estimated to have reached altitudes of 43 km. However, the climatic response to the Samalas event is debated since climate model simulations generally predict a stronger and more prolonged surface air cooling of Northern Hemisphere summers than inferred from tree-ring-based temperature reconstructions. Here, we draw on historical archives, ice-core data and tree-ring records to reconstruct the spatial and temporal climate response to the Samalas eruption. We find that 1258 and 1259 experienced some of the coldest Northern Hemisphere summers of the past millennium. However, cooling across the Northern Hemisphere was spatially heterogeneous. Western Europe, Siberia and Japan experienced strong cooling, coinciding with warmer-than-average conditions over Alaska and northern Canada. We suggest that in North America, volcanic radiative forcing was modulated by a positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Contemporary records attest to severe famines in England and Japan, but these began prior to the eruption. We conclude that the Samalas eruption aggravated existing crises, but did not trigger the famines.
Mots-clés : INDONESIE
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 28, 2017 - 2:20:12 PM
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Sébastien Guillet, Christophe Corona, Markus Stoffel, Myriam Khodri, Franck Lavigne, et al.. Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records. Nature Geoscience, Nature Publishing Group, 2017, 10 (2), pp.123 - 128. ⟨10.1038/ngeo2875⟩. ⟨hal-01497225⟩



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