CRB analysis of planar antenna arrays for optimizing near-field source localization

Abstract : This paper focuses on the Cramér Rao bound (CRB) of the azimuth, elevation and range with planar arrays for narrowband near-field source localization, using the exact expression of the time delay parameter. Specifically, the aim of this paper is twofold. First, we derive explicit non-matrix closed-form expressions of approximations of these three CRBs. Second, we use these expressions to optimize near-field source localization. For deriving these expressions, we introduce conditions on the array geometry that allow us to decouple the azimuth, elevation and range parameters to a certain order in λ/r (in which λ and r denote the wavelength and the range, respectively). The proposed conditions complement those found for a far-field source that ensure the azimuth and elevation estimations are both exactly decoupled and isotropic. A particular attention is given to the popular array configurations which are the concentric uniform circular-based arrays, cross-based and squarebased centro-symmetric arrays which satisfy these conditions. In order to control directions of arrivals (DOA) ambiguity, we propose a new criterion, which allows us to design non-uniform square [resp., cross]-based centrosymmetric array configurations with improved near-field range estimation capabilities without deteriorating the DOA precisions w.r.t. uniform square [resp., cross]-based arrays. Finally, we specify the accuracy of our proposed approximated CRBs'expressions and isotropy's conditions w.r.t. the range and the number of sensors
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Jean-Pierre Delmas, Mohammed Nabil El Korso, Houcem Gazzah, Marc Castella. CRB analysis of planar antenna arrays for optimizing near-field source localization. Signal Processing, Elsevier, 2016, 127, pp.117 - 134. ⟨10.1016/j.sigpro.2016.02.021⟩. ⟨hal-01355428⟩

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