Complexité multi-échelle du système immunitaire: Evolution, du chaos aux fractales

Abstract : The immune system is a complex biological microscopic system at the interface of the environment, with a multi-scale organization. This system insures the molecular identity and the integrity of polygenomic-organized organisms and the resilience of living systems, based on dissipative energy from food absorption. Stochasticity and historicity, participate to the hierarchical temporo-spatial organisation of the system from ontogeny, with restrictions of physical laws. The loss of organization and functionality of the immune system during the course of perturbations and/or aging, observable at various scale levels, represent a prototype of irreversible, critic and chaotic dynamic systems, regulated by feedback loops. First, I consider theoretical hypothesis based on the evolution of the immune system in an arborescent, evolutive, dissipative and fractal-like system following hyperbolic trajectories and chaotic dynamics. This evolutive organization of the immune system in space and time, allows the differentiation and diversity of lymphocytes involved in antigens cognition. Then, examples of experimental observations coupled with statistical and dynamical modelling (ODE, agents) illustrate the multi-scale alterations and the variability of the dynamic behaviour and diversity that occur during perturbations and aging.
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Véronique Thomas-Vaslin. Complexité multi-échelle du système immunitaire: Evolution, du chaos aux fractales . Nicolas Glade, Angélique Stéphanou. Le vivant critique et chaotique, pp.333-402, 2015, 978-2-919694-93-8. ⟨http://www.materiologiques.com/Le-vivant-critique-et-chaotique⟩. ⟨hal-01298282⟩

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