Abstract : This article describes the use of algebraic methods in a phase plane analysis of ordinary differential equations. The method is illustrated by the study of capillary-gravity steady surface waves propagating in shallow water. We consider the (fully nonlinear, weakly dispersive) Serre-Green-Naghdi equations with surface tension, because it provides a tractable model that, in the same time, is not too simple so the interest of the method can be emphasised. In particular, we analyse a special class of solutions, the solitary waves, which play an important role in many fields of Physics. In capillary-gravity regime, there are two kinds of localised infinitely smooth travelling wave solutions -- solitary waves of elevation and of depression. However, if we allow the solitary waves to have an angular point, the ``zoology'' of solutions becomes much richer and the main goal of this study is to provide a complete classification of such singular localised solutions using the methods of the effective Algebraic Geometry.