Influence of an urban canopy model and PBL schemes on vertical mixing for air quality modeling over Greater Paris

Abstract : Impacts of meteorological modeling in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and urban canopy model (UCM) on the vertical mixing of pollutants are studied. Concentrations of gaseous chemical species, including ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter over Paris and the near suburbs are simulated using the 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model Polair3D of the Polyphemus platform. Simulated concentrations of O3, NO2 and PM10/PM2.5 (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm/2.5 μm, respectively) are first evaluated using ground measurements. Higher surface concentrations are obtained for PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 with the MYNN PBL scheme than the YSU PBL scheme because of lower PBL heights in the MYNN scheme. Differences between simulations using different PBL schemes are lower than differences between simulations with and without the UCM and the Corine land-use over urban areas. Regarding the root mean square error, the simulations using the UCM and the Corine land-use tend to perform better than the simulations without it. At urban stations, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are over-estimated and the over-estimation is reduced using the UCM and the Corine land-use. The ability of the model to reproduce vertical mixing is evaluated using NO2 measurement data at the upper air observation station of the Eiffel Tower, and measurement data at a ground station near the Eiffel Tower. Although NO2 is under-estimated in all simulations, vertical mixing is greatly improved when using the UCM and the Corine land-use. Comparisons of the modeled PM10 vertical distributions to distributions deduced from surface and mobile lidar measurements are performed. The use of the UCM and the Corine land-use is crucial to accurately model PM10 concentrations during nighttime in the center of Paris. In the nocturnal stable boundary layer, PM10 is relatively well modeled, although it is over-estimated on 24 May and under-estimated on 25 May. However, PM10 is under-estimated on both days in the residual layer, and over-estimated on both days over the residual layer. The under-estimations in the residual layer are partly due to difficulties to estimate the PBL height, to an over-estimation of vertical mixing during nighttime at high altitudes and to uncertainties in PM10 emissions. The PBL schemes and the UCM influence the PM vertical distributions not only because they influence vertical mixing (PBL height and eddy-diffusion coefficient), but also horizontal wind fields and humidity. However, for the UCM, it is the influence on vertical mixing that impacts the most the PM10 vertical distribution below 1.5 km.
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Youngseob Kim, Karine Sartelet, Jean-Christophe Raut, Patrick Chazette. Influence of an urban canopy model and PBL schemes on vertical mixing for air quality modeling over Greater Paris. Atmospheric Environment, Elsevier, 2015, 107, pp.289-306. ⟨10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.011⟩. ⟨hal-01120195⟩

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