Observations of water with Herschel/HIFI toward the high-mass protostar AFGL 2591

Y., Choi 1 F. F. S., Van Der Tak 2 E. F., Van Dishoeck 3, 4 Fabrice Herpin 5 F., Wyrowski 6
LAB - Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux [Pessac], UB - Université de Bordeaux, INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers , CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Abstract : Water is a sensitive tracer of physical conditions in star-forming regions because of its large abundance variations between hot and cold regions. We use spectrally resolved observations of rotational lines of H$_2$O and its isotopologs with Herschel/HIFI to constrain the physical conditions of the water emitting region toward the high-mass protostar AFGL2591. We use analytical estimates and rotation diagrams to estimate T$_{ex}$ and column densities of H$_2$O of the envelope, the outflow, and a foreground cloud. Furthermore, we use the non-LTE radiative transfer code to estimate the temperature and volume density of the H$_2$O emitting gas. Assuming LTE, we estimate an T$_{ex}$ of 42 K and a column density of 2$\times$10$^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$ for the envelope and 45 K and 4$\times$10$^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$ for the outflow, in beams of 4" and 30", respectively. Non-LTE models indicate a kinetic temperature of 60-230 K and a volume density of 7$\times$10$^6$-10$^8$ cm$^{-3}$ for the envelope, and a kinetic temperature of 70-90 K and a gas density of 10$^7$-10$^8$ cm$^{-3}$ for the outflow. The o/p ratio of the foreground absorption is 1.9$\pm$0.4, suggesting a low temperature. In contrast, the o/p ratio seen in absorption by the outflow is 3.5$\pm$1.0, as expected for warm gas. The water abundance in the envelope is 10$^{-9}$, similar to the low values found for other high- and low-mass protostars, suggesting that this abundance is constant during the embedded phase of high-mass star formation. The water abundance in the outflow is 10$^{-10}$, which is 10$\times$ lower than in the envelope and in the outflows of high- and low-mass protostars. Since beam size effects can only increase this estimate by a factor of 2, we suggest that the water in the outflow is affected by dissociating UV radiation due to the low extinction in the outflow lobe.
Type de document :
Article dans une revue
Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2015, 576, pp.id.A85. 〈10.1051/0004-6361/201322717〉
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Contributeur : Marie-Paule Pomies <>
Soumis le : mardi 23 décembre 2014 - 10:27:51
Dernière modification le : mercredi 27 juillet 2016 - 14:48:48




Y., Choi, F. F. S., Van Der Tak, E. F., Van Dishoeck, Fabrice Herpin, F., Wyrowski. Observations of water with Herschel/HIFI toward the high-mass protostar AFGL 2591. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2015, 576, pp.id.A85. 〈10.1051/0004-6361/201322717〉. 〈hal-01098169〉



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