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Water delivery and giant impacts in the 'Grand Tack' scenario

David P. O'Brien Kevin J. Walsh Alessandro Morbidelli 1 Sean N. Raymond 2 Avi M. Mandell
2 SSE 2014
L3AB - Laboratoire d'astrodynamique, d'astrophysique et d'aéronomie de bordeaux, OASU - Observatoire aquitain des sciences de l'univers, LAB - Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux [Pessac], Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1
Abstract : A new model for terrestrial planet formation (Hansen [2009]. Astrophys. J., 703, 1131-1140; Walsh, K.J., et al. [2011]. Nature, 2011, 206-209) has explored accretion in a truncated protoplanetary disk, and found that such a configuration is able to reproduce the distribution of mass among the planets in the Solar System, especially the Earth/Mars mass ratio, which earlier simulations have generally not been able to match. Walsh et al. (Walsh, K.J., et al. [2011]. Nature, 2011, 206-209) tested a possible mechanism to truncate the disk-a two-stage, inward-then-outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn, as found in numerous hydrodynamical simulations of giant planet formation. In addition to truncating the disk and producing a more realistic Earth/Mars mass ratio, the migration of the giant planets also populates the asteroid belt with two distinct populations of bodies-the inner belt is filled by bodies originating inside of 3 AU, and the outer belt is filled with bodies originating from between and beyond the giant planets (which are hereafter referred to as 'primitive' bodies). One implication of the truncation mechanism proposed in Walsh et al. (Walsh, K.J., et al. [2011]. Nature, 2011, 206-209) is the scattering of primitive planetesimals onto planet-crossing orbits during the formation of the planets. We find here that the planets will accrete on order 1-2% of their total mass from these bodies. For an assumed value of 10% for the water mass fraction of the primitive planetesimals, this model delivers a total amount of water comparable to that estimated to be on the Earth today. The radial distribution of the planetary masses and the dynamical excitation of their orbits are a good match to the observed system. However, we find that a truncated disk leads to formation timescales more rapid than suggested by radiometric chronometers. In particular, the last giant impact is typically earlier than 20 Myr, and a substantial amount of mass is accreted after that event. This is at odds with the dating of the Moon-forming impact and the estimated amount of mass accreted by Earth following that event. However, 5 of the 27 planets larger than half an Earth mass formed in all simulations do experience large late impacts and subsequent accretion consistent with those constraints.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 8, 2014 - 9:11:58 AM
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David P. O'Brien, Kevin J. Walsh, Alessandro Morbidelli, Sean N. Raymond, Avi M. Mandell. Water delivery and giant impacts in the 'Grand Tack' scenario. Icarus, Elsevier, 2014, 239, pp.74-84. ⟨10.1016/J.ICARUS.2014.05.009⟩. ⟨hal-01020283⟩

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