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Large area and structured epitaxial graphene produced by confinement controlled sublimation of silicon carbide

Abstract : After the pioneering investigations into graphene-based electronics at Georgia Tech (GT), great strides have been made developing epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (EG) as a new electronic material. EG has not only demonstrated its potential for large scale applications, it also has become an invaluable material for fundamental two-dimensional electron gas physics showing that only EG is on route to define future graphene science. It was long known that graphene mono and multilayers grow on SiC crystals at high temperatures in ultra-high vacuum. At these temperatures, silicon sublimes from the surface and the carbon rich surface layer transforms to graphene. However the quality of the graphene produced in ultrahigh vacuum is poor due to the high sublimation rates at relatively low temperatures. The GT team developed growth methods involving encapsulating the SiC crystals in graphite enclosures, thereby sequestering the evaporated silicon and bringing growth process closer to equilibrium. In this confinement controlled sublimation (CCS) process, very high quality graphene is grown on both polar faces of the SiC crystals. Since 2003, over 50 publications used CCS grown graphene, where it is known as the "furnace grown" graphene. Graphene multilayers grown on the carbon-terminated face of SiC, using the CCS method, were shown to consist of decoupled high mobility graphene layers. The CCS method is now applied on structured silicon carbide surfaces to produce high mobility nano-patterned graphene structures thereby demonstrating that EG is a viable contender for next-generation electronics. Here we present the CCS method and demonstrate several of epitaxial graphene's outstanding properties and applications.
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Contributor : Claire Berger <>
Submitted on : Friday, November 29, 2013 - 6:58:59 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, February 10, 2021 - 8:56:40 AM

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Walt. A. de Heer, Claire Berger, Ming Ruan, Mike Sprinkle, Xuebin Li, et al.. Large area and structured epitaxial graphene produced by confinement controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , National Academy of Sciences, 2011, 108 (41), pp.16900-16905. ⟨10.1073/pnas.1105113108⟩. ⟨hal-00911226⟩



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