SNP Detection from De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing in the Bivalve Macoma balthica: Marker Development for Evolutionary Studies

Abstract : Hybrid zones are noteworthy systems for the study of environmental adaptation to fast-changing environments, as they constitute reservoirs of polymorphism and are key to the maintenance of biodiversity. They can move in relation to climate fluctuations, as temperature can affect both selection and migration, or remain trapped by environmental and physical barriers. There is therefore a very strong incentive to study the dynamics of hybrid zones subjected to climate variations. The infaunal bivalve Macoma balthica emerges as a noteworthy model species, as divergent lineages hybridize, and its native NE Atlantic range is currently contracting to the North. To investigate the dynamics and functioning of hybrid zones in M. balthica, we developed new molecular markers by sequencing the collective transcriptome of 30 individuals. Ten individuals were pooled for each of the three populations sampled at the margins of two hybrid zones. A single 454 run generated 277 Mb from which 17K SNPs were detected. SNP density averaged 1 polymorphic site every 14 to 19 bases, for mitochondrial and nuclear loci, respectively. An An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is pone.0052302.e001.jpg scan detected high genetic divergence among several hundred SNPs, some of them involved in energetic metabolism, cellular respiration and physiological stress. The high population differentiation, recorded for nuclear-encoded ATP synthase and NADH dehydrogenase as well as most mitochondrial loci, suggests cytonuclear genetic incompatibilities. Results from this study will help pave the way to a high-resolution study of hybrid zone dynamics in M. balthica, and the relative importance of endogenous and exogenous barriers to gene flow in this system.
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Eric Pante, Audrey Rohfritsch, Vanessa Becquet, Khalid Belkhir, Nicolas Bierne, et al.. SNP Detection from De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing in the Bivalve Macoma balthica: Marker Development for Evolutionary Studies. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2012, 7 (12), pp.e52302. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0052302⟩. ⟨hal-00871859⟩

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