Reconstructing Native American population history.

David Reich 1, 2, * Nick Patterson 1 Desmond Campbell 3, 4 Arti Tandon 1, 2 Stéphane Mazières 5 Nicolas Ray 6 Maria V Parra 4 Winston Rojas 7 Constanza Duque 8 Natalia Mesa 8 Luis F García 8 Omar Triana 8 Silvia Blair 8 Amanda Maestre 9 Juan C Dib 10 Claudio M Bravi 11 Graciela Bailliet 11 Daniel Corach 12 Tábita Hünemeier 13 Maria Cátira Bortolini 13 Francisco M Salzano 13 María Luiza Petzl-Erler 14 Victor Acuña-Alonzo 15 Carlos Aguilar-Salinas 16 Samuel Canizales-Quinteros 17, 18 Teresa Tusié-Luna 16 Laura Riba 16 Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz 19 Mardia Lopez-Alarcón 19 Ramón Coral-Vazquez 20, 21 Thelma Canto-Cetina 22 Irma Silva-Zolezzi 23 Juan Carlos Fernandez-Lopez 23 Alejandra V Contreras 23 Gerardo Jimenez-Sanchez 23 Maria José Gómez-Vázquez 24 Julio Molina 25 Ángel Carracedo 26 Antonio Salas 27 Carla Gallo 7 Giovanni Poletti 7 David B Witonsky 28 Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu 28 Rem I Sukernik 29 Ludmila Osipova 29 Sardana A Fedorova 30 René Vasquez 31 Mercedes Villena 31 Claudia Moreau 32 Ramiro Barrantes 33 David Pauls 34 Laurent Excoffier 35 Gabriel Bedoya 7 Francisco Rothhammer 36, 37 Jean-Michel Dugoujon 38 Georges Larrouy 38 William Klitz 39 Damian Labuda 40 Judith Kidd 41 Kenneth Kidd 41 Anna Di Rienzo 28 Nelson B Freimer 42 Alkes L Price 4 Andrés Ruiz-Linares 4
* Corresponding author
Abstract : The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.
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David Reich, Nick Patterson, Desmond Campbell, Arti Tandon, Stéphane Mazières, et al.. Reconstructing Native American population history.. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2012, 488 (7411), pp.370-4. ⟨10.1038/nature11258⟩. ⟨hal-00726962⟩

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