Abstract : Image Processing On Line (IPOL) publishes image processing and image analysis algorithms, described in accurate literary form, coupled with code. It allows scientists to check directly the published algorithms on line by providing a web execution interface on any uploaded image. This installation acts the universality of image science. It permits to transcend the artificial segmentation of the research community in groups using this or that image software, or working on dedicated incompatible image formats. It promotes reproducible research, and the establishment of a state of the art verifiable by all, and on any image. This paper describes the technical challenges raised by the foundation of this new kind of journal and its scientific evaluation issues. It finally analyzes the first publications, to demonstrate its potential impact on the development of image science.