Abstract : Solving efficiently complex problems using metaheuristics, and in particular local searches, requires incorporating knowledge about the problem to solve. In this paper, the permutation flowshop problem is studied. It is well known that in such problems, several solutions may have the same fitness value. As this neutrality property is an important one, it should be taken into account during the design of optimization methods. Then in the context of the permutation flowshop, a deep landscape analysis focused on the neutrality property is driven and propositions on the way to use this neutrality to guide efficiently the search are given.