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Comparison of the efficacy and pharmacology of formulations of amphotericin B used in treatment of leishmaniasis.

Abstract : PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several lipid-based formulations of the antifungal and antiparasitic drug amphotericin B are now available on the market. The purpose of this review is to assess their efficacy against leishmaniasis in both experimental and clinical settings, and to point out new developments in the formulation of this antibiotic. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of resistance to pentavalent antimony compounds has shifted the emphasis to amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India. Lipid formulations show good efficacy but are expensive. The treatment period with lipid formulations is shorter, however, which reduces hospitalization costs. As a result, in developed countries where these costs are an important proportion of the treatment, lipid formulations are preferred, whereas they remain largely inaccessible in developing countries. Lipid-associated amphotericin B has been found to be effective for secondary prophylaxis in HIV-positive patients, in studies carried out in European countries bordering the Mediterranean. SUMMARY: The reduced toxicity of lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B is no longer in doubt. In India, their efficacy against visceral leishmaniasis and shorter treatment periods compared with the conventional formulation with deoxycholate has to be counter-balanced against the very high cost. By contrast, in developed countries around the Mediterranean, where leishmaniasis occurs mainly in immunocompromised individuals, lipid formulations have become the treatment of choice for visceral disease. The efficacy against cutaneous lesions is variable, however, and in some reports oral miltefosine was active after failure of treatment with amphotericin B.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00385448
Contributor : Philippe Legrand <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, May 20, 2009 - 5:24:46 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, November 10, 2020 - 2:04:02 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, June 10, 2010 - 11:25:25 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-00385448, version 1
  • PUBMED : 16258327

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Gillian Barratt, Philippe Legrand. Comparison of the efficacy and pharmacology of formulations of amphotericin B used in treatment of leishmaniasis.. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005, 18 (6), pp.527-30. ⟨hal-00385448⟩

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