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Journal articles

Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against Nipah virus infection in hamsters.

Abstract : Nipah virus (NiV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes a zoonotic infection in which the reservoir, the fruit bat, may pass the infection to pigs and eventually to humans. In humans, the infection leads to encephalitis with >40 to 70% mortality. We have previously shown that polyclonal antibody directed to either one of two glycoproteins, G (attachment protein) or F (fusion protein), can protect hamsters from a lethal infection. In the present study, we have developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to both glycoproteins and assessed their ability to protect animals against lethal NiV infection. We show that as little as 1.2 mug of an anti-G MAb protected animals, whereas more than 1.8 mug of anti-F MAb was required to completely protect the hamsters. High levels of either anti-G or anti-F MAbs gave a sterilizing immunity, whereas lower levels could protect against a fatal infection but resulted in an increase in anti-NiV antibodies starting 18 days after the viral challenge. Using reverse transcriptase PCR, the presence of NiV in the different organs could not be observed in MAb-protected animals. When the MAbs were given after infection, partial protection (50%) was observed with the anti-G MAbs when the animals were inoculated up to 24 h after infection, but administration of the anti-F MAbs protected some animals (25 to 50%) inoculated later during the infection. Our studies suggest that immunotherapy could be used for people who are exposed to NiV infections.Nipah virus (NiV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes a zoonotic infection in which the reservoir, the fruit bat, may pass the infection to pigs and eventually to humans. In humans, the infection leads to encephalitis with >40 to 70% mortality. We have previously shown that polyclonal antibody directed to either one of two glycoproteins, G (attachment protein) or F (fusion protein), can protect hamsters from a lethal infection. In the present study, we have developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to both glycoproteins and assessed their ability to protect animals against lethal NiV infection. We show that as little as 1.2 mug of an anti-G MAb protected animals, whereas more than 1.8 mug of anti-F MAb was required to completely protect the hamsters. High levels of either anti-G or anti-F MAbs gave a sterilizing immunity, whereas lower levels could protect against a fatal infection but resulted in an increase in anti-NiV antibodies starting 18 days after the viral challenge. Using reverse transcriptase PCR, the presence of NiV in the different organs could not be observed in MAb-protected animals. When the MAbs were given after infection, partial protection (50%) was observed with the anti-G MAbs when the animals were inoculated up to 24 h after infection, but administration of the anti-F MAbs protected some animals (25 to 50%) inoculated later during the infection. Our studies suggest that immunotherapy could be used for people who are exposed to NiV infections.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00315102
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Submitted on : Wednesday, August 27, 2008 - 5:01:43 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 17, 2022 - 2:58:08 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-00315102, version 1
  • PUBMED : 16439553

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V. Guillaume, H. Contamin, P. Loth, I. Grosjean, Mc Courbot, et al.. Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against Nipah virus infection in hamsters.. Journal of Virology, American Society for Microbiology, 2006, 80, pp.1972-1978. ⟨hal-00315102⟩

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