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Le décrochage scolaire au lycée : analyse des effets du processus de stress et de l'orientation scolaire, et des profils de décrocheurs

Abstract : A number of studies have delved into the social or school factors of dropping out rooted in the contexts of elementary or middle school (e.g., school difficulties associated with a low socioeconomic background). As a complement, more research is needed to better understand dropping out during high school and its underlying « stress process » (Dupéré et al., 2015). The present thesis responds to this need by analyzing administrative and self-reported data from vocational and academic students followed during three years starting at the first year of high school (N > 1900, including 17% dropouts). Firstly, our multilevel analyses show that, regardless of students’ social and school background before high school, the stress process at the beginning of high school increases the odds of dropping out by diminishing perceptions of school justice and control and teacher support (i.e., resources and needs that protect against stress) as well as school engagement and grades (i.e., proximal factors of stress). Secondly, regardless of students’ background, being admitted into a vocational track that offers poorer employment prospects facilitates dropping out. Likewise, entering a less prestigious track contributes to dropout, but only among students who feel little control or justice in the high school context. Thirdly, analyses of school trajectories point to the existence of 4 dropout profiles that can be differentiated according to their life course and stress process. Most dropouts (60%) show “normative” student profiles during high school and are overrepresented in devalued tracks. Overall, these results suggest that high school dropout cannot be reduced to the early risk factors that are highlighted in the literature, but that it is also due to the existence of tracks that show little promise for future employment and to the stress process that results, for some students, from school and social relegation. Implications are drawn regarding the way dropping out can be conceived of and tackled from an approach that combines these dimensions (i.e., school tracking and individual development).
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Contributor : Fernando Núñez-Regueiro Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, June 13, 2022 - 5:19:32 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, June 25, 2022 - 3:06:46 AM


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Fernando Núñez-Regueiro. Le décrochage scolaire au lycée : analyse des effets du processus de stress et de l'orientation scolaire, et des profils de décrocheurs. Education. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-03694514⟩



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